Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia with Apparatus
The fourth edition of the Biblia Hebraica series, edited by Wilhelm Rudolph and Karl Ellinger, serves as the standard critical edition of the Hebrew Bible and is the most widely used original language edition among pastors and scholars. Like other editions in this series, the BHS follows the Leningrad Codex almost exactly but contains a far superior critical apparatus than its predecessor, representing nearly four hundred years of textual research. The Critical Apparatus provides readings from a variety of sources including the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Septuagint, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and the Targums (paraphrases of the Bible written in Aramaic).
Biblia Hebraica Quinta with Critical Apparatus
While this edition will not be completed for several more years, the BHQ is the successor of the BHS and represents a major improvement to earlier editions. Similar to the BHK and BHS, the BHQ follows the Leningrad Codex, cited from new color photographs. The extended critical apparatus contains English abbreviations, rather than Latin, brief explanations of variant readings, and a more consistent and comprehensive way of displaying textual evidence.
The Hebrew Pentateuch of the Samaritans
The Samaritan Pentateuch is an essential text for understanding the complex textual history of the Old Testament texts. Its existence was “rediscovered” by scholars during the 17th century and its importance as a textual witness has been vigorously debated since that time. Although the Samaritan Pentateuch is most commonly known for its sectarian readings, such as God’s command to build the temple on mount Gerizim, its value is in no way diminished, evident from its numerous agreements with the Septuagint and Dead Sea Scrolls against the Masoretic Text, as well as the agreements between Stephen’s sermon in Acts against any known Masoretic Text.