The Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) is one of the most widely used editions of the Hebrew Bible. It is the fourth edition of the Biblia Hebraica from the German Bible Society, and the text is based on Codex Leningradensis (b19A, the Leningrad Codex), the oldest complete Hebrew Bible. The text contains full vowel pointing, accentuation, and punctuation. The BHS serves as the underlying text for most modern translations of the Old Testament.
This digital edition includes lexical form and morphology tags to assist in reading and translating the text and to facilitate advanced searching. The morphological database comes from the Free University in Amsterdam (Werkgroep Informatica, Vrije Universiteit or WIVU, led by Eep Talstra), and is similar to the morphological tagging found in the BHS SESB edition, with one significant difference: pronominal suffixes have been placed in separate segments from the word they are attached to. This has some benefits in the Logos library, because many of our in-house databases are aligned to specific segments of the Hebrew text. For example, the participant reference database which tags who a pronoun refers to will link with this WIVU edition better than the SESB edition.
However, one of the main features of the print BHS is the critical apparatus, which lists significant textual variations from other Hebrew manuscripts and key early translations. This digital edition of the BHS does not include the critical apparatus or the indicators in the text that link to the apparatus entries. For a digital edition of the BHS with the critical apparatus, see the BHS SESB.
“הַקּוֹצְרִ֖ים וַיֹּאמַ֑ר נַעֲרָ֤ה מֽוֹאֲבִיָּה֙ הִ֔יא הַשָּׁ֥בָה עִֽם־נָעֳמִ֖י” (Ruth 2:6)
“וּמַן־ה֣וּא אֱלָ֔הּ דֵּ֥י יְשֵֽׁיזְבִנְכ֖וֹן מִן־יְדָֽי׃” (Daniel 3:15)
“וְהִנֵּ֗ה כִּדְמוּת֙ בְּנֵ֣י אָדָ֔ם נֹגֵ֖עַ עַל־שְׂפָתָ֑י” (Daniel 10:16)
“וְאַתָּ֖ה לֵ֣ךְ לַקֵּ֑ץ וְתָנ֛וּחַ וְתַעֲמֹ֥ד לְגֹרָלְךָ֖ לְקֵ֥ץ הַיָּמִֽין׃” (Daniel 12:13)
“נָֽפְלִ֨ין כָּֽל־עַֽמְמַיָּ֜א אֻמַיָּ֣א וְלִשָּׁנַיָּ֗א” (Daniel 3:7)
Eep Talstra (1946–) is the chair of Old Testament at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. He has written articles on the Bible and computers, and Old Testament exegesis and theology. Dr. Talstra is a member of several scholarly societies and remains active in research projects at VU Amsterdam.