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Mobile Ed: AP113 Objections to the Gospels (6 hour course)

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In his Objections to the Gospels course, Dr. Michael R. Licona explores the major objections to the reliability of the Gospels posed by modern critics. This course provides you with strong historical background to the text and authorship of the Gospels and a greater appreciation for these works.

Resource Experts

Learning Objectives

Upon successful completion you should be able to:

  • Grow stronger in your faith in light of the historical reliability of the Gospels
  • Engage in rich discussions with skeptics
  • Provide others with a more informed and accurate view of the Gospels

Course Outline


  • Introducing the Speaker and the Course

Unit 1: Overcoming Objections to the Gospels

  • Introduction
  • The Basis of the Biblical Text
  • Interacting with the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts
  • The Problem of Variants
  • Investigating Textual Differences in 1 John 1:4
  • The Purpose of Translations
  • Testing the Validity of the Bible: Archaeological and Historical Proof
  • Testing the Validity of the Bible: External and Internal Sources
  • Confirming Scripture: Undesigned Coincidences & Canonization
  • The Criteria and the Debate of Canonicity
  • Comparing Early Canonical Lists

Unit 2: The Authorship of the Gospels

  • The Question of Authorship, Beginning with Mark
  • Common Objections to Mark’s Authorship
  • Examining the Authorship of Luke
  • Finding the “We” Sections in Acts
  • Examining the Authorship of John
  • Further Examination of the Authorship of John
  • Examining the Authorship of Matthew
  • The Comparison and Relevance of Authorship in Context

Unit 3: Dating the Gospels

  • Dating the Gospel of Mark
  • Dating the Gospel of Matthew and Luke
  • Dating the Gospel of John
  • Handling the Gap

Unit 4: Eyewitness Accounts Preserved through Oral Tradition

  • Eyewitness Testimony
  • Protective Anonymity
  • The Formality of the Oral Tradition
  • The Integrity of the Oral Tradition

Unit 5: Considering Miracles

  • Miracles through a Scientific Lens
  • Hume on Miracles
  • Probability, History, and Miracles: A Look at Bayes’ Theorem
  • Evidence of Miracles
  • Evidence of a Supernatural Realm
  • Parallels: Examining Pagan Influence and Causal Connections
  • Parallels: Examining Desire, Myth, and Evidence
  • Considering Bias

Unit 6: Redaction with a Purpose

  • The Truth about Contradictions
  • Spotting Discrepancies in the Gospels
  • The Influence of Genre
  • The Purpose of Redaction: Clarifying the Text
  • Handling Differences in Communication Styles
  • The Teaching and Application of Ancient Writing Techniques
  • Examples of Redaction in the Gospels
  • Introducing Secular Examples of Redaction in Ancient Biographies
  • Examples of the Accepted Practice of Transferal
  • Examples of the Accepted Practice of Literary Spotlighting
  • Examples of the Accepted Practice of Simplification
  • Remembering Genre


  • Concluding the Course

Product Details

  • Title: AP113 Objections to the Gospels
  • Instructor: Michael R. Licona
  • Publisher: Lexham Press
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Product Type: Logos Mobile Education
  • Resource Type: Courseware, including transcripts, audio, and video resources
  • Courses: 1
  • Video Hours: 6
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About Michael R. Licona

Dr. Michael R. Licona is associate professor of theology at Houston Baptist University. He is the author of numerous books including The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach and Paul Meets Muhammad: A Christian-Muslim Debate on the Resurrection, co-author of the award-winning The Case for the Resurrection of Jesus, and co-editor of Evidence for God: 50 Arguments for Faith from the Bible, History, Philosophy, and Science.

Getting the most out of Mobile Ed

Logos Mobile Education is a highly effective cross-platform learning environment that integrates world class teaching with the powerful study tools and theological libraries available in Logos Bible Software. Every course provides links to additional resources and suggested readings that supplement the lecture material at the end of every transcript segment.

This course was produced with screencast videos. These videos provide tutorials showing you how to use Logos Bible Software in ways that are tied directly into the content of the course. We are now producing Activities resources as a replacement for screencast videos. We plan on updating this course to include this additional Activities resource in the future for no extra charge.



4 ratings

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  1. Ray Mills

    Ray Mills


  2. Kevin Bratcher
  3. Ralph A. Abernethy III
  4. Faithlife User
    This course is absolutely amazing! The amount of relevant data that Dr. Licona presents, and done so in such a winsome manner makes this one of the best Mobile Ed courses ever produced. Highly recommended!


Collection value: $329.99
Save $110.00 (33%)
Payment plans available in cart