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John’s Use of the Old Testament in Revelation

ISBN: 9781850758945

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Gregory K. Beale explores the variety of ways John uses the Old Testament in the Apocalypse. The introduction surveys and evaluates recent studies, which have been divided over the issue of whether or not John uses the Old Testament with sensitivity to its original literary context. The remainder of the book looks at various ways in which John uses the Old Testament, and argues that there is a reciprocal interpretative relationship between the Old Testament and the Apocalypse.

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“The likelihood is that John draws from both Semitic and Greek biblical sources and often modifies both.13 Charles” (Page 62)

“I attempted to demonstrate that a number of works in Jewish apocalyptic literature and some passages in John’s Revelation reflected similar exegetical patterns of the use of Daniel. In particular, I concluded that whole segments in these works were based on sections from the book of Daniel, especially Daniel 7 and Daniel 10–12. This was consistent with the work of Lars Hartman who also found that the synoptic eschatological discourse was based broadly on Daniel 7–12.7 I argued that there was no mechanical dependence nor copying but a creative use of Daniel in the light of the purposes and circumstances of each apocalyptic writer.” (Page 15)

“The Old Testament in general plays such a major role that a proper understanding of its use is necessary for an adequate view of the Apocalypse as a whole.” (Page 61)

“Bauckham argues persuasively that the numbering of Rev. 7:4–8 suggests that those numbered are an army who are to conduct ironic holy war.28 The evidence for the view is primarily fourfold.” (Page 24)

“The reason that John’s visionary experience is set on ‘the Lord’s day’ is to underscore the christological (and theological) focus of the following vision (1:12ff.), which is picked up again in Revelation 4–5.” (Page 19)

  • Title: John’s Use of the Old Testament in Revelation
  • Author: G. K. Beale
  • Series: Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series
  • Volume: 166
  • Publisher: Sheffield Academic Press
  • Print Publication Date: 1998
  • Logos Release Date: 2015
  • Language: English
  • Resources: 1
  • Format: Digital › Logos Research Edition
  • Subjects: Bible. N.T. Revelation › Criticism, interpretation, etc; Bible. N.T. Revelation › Relation to the Old Testament; Bible. O.T. › Relation to Revelation
  • ISBNs: 9781850758945, 1850758948
  • Resource Type: Monograph
  • Metadata Last Updated: 2022-09-30T00:53:01Z
G. K. Beale

G. K. Beale (Ph.D., University of Cambridge) is Kenneth T. Wessner Professor of New Testament at Wheaton College Graduate School, Wheaton, Illinois, and coordinator of Wheaton's M.A. in Biblical Exegesis program. His books include The Book of Revelation (New International Greek Testament Commentary), 1-2 Thessalonians (The IVP New Testament Commentary Series), The Right Doctrine from the Wrong Texts? Essays on the Use of the Old Testament in the New, and The Temple and the Church's Mission: A Biblical Theology of the Dwelling Place of God.


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  1. Nathaniel Moore
    G. K. Beale’s work, John’s Use of the Old Testament in Revelation, seeks to expand, develop, and focus some of his earlier studies as well as offer some scholarly interaction with current related works. Although each individual topic discussed is clear enough, the structure of the work is somewhat lacking, resembling a cohesive collection of essays (of which some chapters in fact are) rather than a thorough treatment of the Old Testament backgrounds to John’s Revelation. This is perhaps best evidenced by the lack of any conclusion to the work as a whole, all the more surprising given the centrality and ongoing nature of this avenue of inquiry regarding the study of John’s Revelation. The project may have been better suited to a specialized commentary, and as it stands serves more as a hermeneutical supplement (297) to Beale’s existing commentary.
  2. Ray Mills

    Ray Mills


  3. Richard Aaron Thomas
  4. zhuhongliang



  5. Richard C. Hammond, Jr.
  6. Akintoye AKINTUNDE
  7. Rev Steve M Conwell
  8. John



  9. Chris Surber

    Chris Surber


  10. Jacobo García Estrella
Save 25% off during the Memorial Day Sale!


Regular price: $31.99
Save $8.00 (25%)