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Previously called the Roman Catechism, The Catechism of the Council of Trent is considered by many to be the most important Catholic catechism. Although originally designed as a resource for parish priests to provide instruction, it is now used extensively by laypeople as a source of core Catholic theology. It contains the basic tenets of the Catholic faith, providing clear explanations of what is necessary for salvation. It also includes material on the Ten Commandments, the Apostles Creed, the Sacraments, and more.

The Council of Trent commissioned the first Church-wide catechism, finished in 1564. The Council dealt with the growing concern in the Church over the Protestant Reformation, and recognized the need for a document to teach the basics of the Catholic faith. The first English translation of the catechism was completed in 1839.