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Products>Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament | TDOT (15 vols.)

Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament | TDOT (15 vols.)

, 1977–2012
ISBN: 9780802823380

Digital Logos Edition

This collection is no longer available, but is part of the updated TDOT collection: Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament (TDOT), Volumes I–XVI (16 vols.).

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The Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament (TDOT) is one of the most extensive and important works on the Old Testament ever produced. A requirement for sound scholarship on the Hebrew Bible, it remains as fundamental to Old Testament studies as its New Testament counterpart Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (TDNT) (10 vols.) (TDNT) does to New Testament studies.

Beginning with 'ābh ('āb), “father,” and continuing all the way through the Hebrew alphabet, TDOT provides extensive research and analysis of every Hebrew and Aramaic word group in the Old Testament. Leading scholars from a variety of Christian traditions and all across the globe contributed articles on individual words that explain the word’s semantic range, present its morphology, and identify its meaning in the Old Testament. Contributors employ philology as well as form-critical and traditio-historical methods to provide explanation for religious statements found in the original Hebrew.

To avoid artificially restricting the focus of the articles, TDOT considers larger groups of words that are related linguistically or semantically. Lexical work includes detailed surveys of a word’s occurrences, not only in biblical material but also in other ancient Near Eastern writings. Sumerian, Akkadian, Egyptian, Ethiopic, Ugaritic, and Northwest Semitic sources receive detailed attention, as do Qumran’s texts and the Septuagint.

The New Testament counterpart, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (TDNT) (10 vols.) is also available.

Key Features

  • Provides extensive research and analysis on every major word group in Aramaic and Hebrew in the Old Testament
  • Documents semantical range, philology, morphology using form-critical and historical-critical methods
  • Includes analysis of other ancient Near East texts including Qumran’s texts as well as the LXX

Top Highlights

“Thus rēʾšîṯ refers to the beginning of a process with a definite end or goal, or to a specific limited period of time, whereas teḥillâ means simply the first in a series of events without a definite end.” (Volume 13, Page 269)

“The original meaning of the Heb. berith (as well as of Akk. riksu and Hitt. išḫiul) is not ‘agreement or settlement between two parties,’ as is commonly argued. berith implies first and foremost the notion of ‘imposition,’ ‘liability,’ or ‘obligation,’ as might be learned from the ‘bond’ etymology discussed above. Thus we find that the berith is commanded (tsivvah beritho, ‘he has commanded his covenant,’ Ps. 111:9; Jgs. 2:20), which certainly cannot be said about a mutual agreement. As will be shown below, berith is synonymous with law and commandment (cf., e.g., Dt. 4:13; 33:9; Isa. 24:5; Ps. 50:16; 103:18), and the covenant at Sinai in Ex. 24 is in its essence an imposition of laws and obligations upon the people (vv. 3–8).” (Volume 2, Page 255)

“For mišpāṭ the focal point clearly lies in the realm of justice, judgment, and law. But in several texts the meaning ‘decision’ is sufficient, without its being understood as correct and positive. Other passages tend in the direction of ‘claim, demand,’ emphasizing positive engagement on behalf of a particular position.” (Volume 9, Page 87)

“Such parallelism shows that zākhar denotes the presence and acceptance of something in the mind.” (Volume 4, Page 65)

“We may therefore conclude quite generally that ḥeseḏ is a relational concept.” (Volume 5, Page 49)

Praise for the Print Edition

Provides a much-needed resource into the language of the Old Testament, particularly as it relates to the ancient Near East . . . A must for any serious student of the Old Testament.

—Southwestern Journal of Theology

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About the Editors

G. Johannes Botterweck (1917–1981) was a twentieth-century German theologian who focused on Old Testament theology and language studies while teaching at Tübingen and the University of Bonn.

Heinz–Josef Fabry (b. 1944) completed and coedited TDOT, taking over after Botterweck’s death in 1981. Fabry also serves as a Hebraist faculty member at Bonn University.

Helmer Ringgren (1917–2012) was a Swedish theologian who taught comparative religion at Abo Akademi University and Old Testament exegesis at Uppsala Univeristy and also coedited the TDOT.

Sample Pages from the Print Edition


16 ratings

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  1. Debra W Bouey

    Debra W Bouey


  2. Calvin L. Coles
  3. Alex Cheung

    Alex Cheung


    Wonderful. I'm so glad that I bought this on pre-pub even though I've already had the printed volumes. Logos is so much more powerful and easier to use.
  4. Alexander C. Stewart
  5. Ana Dzuver

    Ana Dzuver


  6. Kamila Blessing
  7. Dr. Gordon Arthur
  8. David



  9. Rev Sir Joseph Alexander de León, KR, KC, KStG, FRSA, FRAS, Baron von Tannenberg
  10. Larry Liddiard

    Larry Liddiard


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