How to Do a Bible Word Study
Word studies are a gold mine . . . and a minefield. Why? Because it’s tempting to derive too much significance from a single biblical word. (We’re looking at you, agape.) With that in mind, here are six steps that will help you mine the gold without hitting the mines.
1. Set Expectations
Word studies are helpful because they can illuminate the significance of biblical concepts like justification or repentance. But you can’t just search for the word “joy” to find every time the Bible employs the concept of joy. Psalm 150, for example, is a psalm bursting with joy, but the word is never used. Studying the use of a particular biblical word is helpful, but we must be careful not to derive too much meaning from a word study. Ultimately, we are interested in concepts. Word studies are merely a means for understanding biblical concepts, and the results of our study must be considered in light of the overall biblical witness concerning a given concept.
- Logos blog: 5 Reasons Studying Greek Is Worth the Pain
- Logos blog: 3 Reasons to Study Greek, and 3 Reasons Not To
- Logos blog: Good and Bad Goals for Studying New Testament Greek
Lexham Theological Wordbook
Unlike most other wordbooks, this resource organizes entries by concepts rather than Greek or Hebrew lemmas. Related words are grouped together, giving you easy access to the most relevant terms without needing to go back and forth throughout the volume.Learn more
2. Choose a Word
As you are studying a biblical text, look for words that might deserve a closer look. For example, let’s say you’re studying Matthew 4 and you come upon verse 4:
“But [Jesus] answered, ‘It is written, “Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.”’”
As you’re reading through this verse, you wonder “Is there any significance to the use of the phrase ‘every word‘?” This is an example of the kind of question that may lead to a profitable word study.
- The Bible Project: Word Study on the Shema
- Desiring God: Importance of Word Searches
3. Research Biblical Word Usage
Once you’ve chosen a word for your word study, you need to examine word usage. There are three steps you’ll need to take to accomplish this:
- Research Word Occurrences and Translation
- Research Lexicon Entries
- Research Senses of the Word
You want to see how many times and where your word appears in the Bible. You can do this with a concordance (which can take quite a while) or do it in a couple clicks with Logos.
“Lexicon” is just another word for a specialized dictionary. In this case, a dictionary on Greek or Hebrew words. Keep in mind that dictionaries don’t determine meaning, they are simply a quick reference that captures how words are used.
Words can be used in many different ways; they have a range of meaning. Logos has a built-in tool called the Bible Sense Lexicon that shows you all the different senses a word might have in Scripture. Consulting this will help you better understand possible translations for your word.
- Logos blog: The Easy Way to Do a Responsible Bible Word Study
- Logos blog: The Concentric Circles of a Good Bible Word Study
Logos 9 Silver
Doing anything with Greek or Hebrew using paper resources is tedious. The beauty of Logos Bible Software is that it removes all the busy work. For example, instead of painstakingly scouring a concordance line by line, you can see everywhere your word is used in just a few clicks.Learn more
As Faithlife’s own Dr. Mark Ward often says, word studies are both a gold mine and a minefield. It’s so tempting to attribute too much significance to your interpretation of a biblical word. D. A. Carson’s classic resources will help you avoid the mines and get to the gold.Learn more
4. Consult Commentaries for Lemma Discussion
Commentaries often discuss key terms or important words in the context of the passage where they occur. Since these discussions are focused on a specific passage, they may provide useful, in-depth information on how the word is used in that passage.
You can find where commentaries discuss your word in one of two ways:
- Look it up in paper commentaries
- Use Logos to find everywhere your commentaries mention the word
If you own some commentaries that include discussions of the original languages, look up passages that use your word. Keep your eyes peeled for your Greek or Hebrew word or the transliteration of your word.
Logos has a tool called “Lemma in Passage.” You just look up your word and Logos shows you everywhere your commentaries mentions that original language word. You’ll get more results than doing it manually, and it takes just a second or two to get a complete list.
- Best Commentaries: Best Technical Commentaries
- Logos blog: 5 Reasons Studying Greek Is Worth the Pain
Evangelical Exegetical Commentary Series
D. A. Carson called one volume in this series the best technical commentary on Ephesians. That’s high praise from the guy who literally wrote the book on avoiding exegetical fallacies! You could do worse than stocking your digital commentary shelf with this set. It’s filled to the brim with in-depth discussions on the original languages.Learn more
5. Record Observations and Come to Conclusions
Naturally, you’ll take notes as you study. Some people prefer paper notes, while others rely on digital note apps for this. Logos comes with a built-in note-taking system that was created with studying the Bible in mind. Notes stick to the passage or word your studying so you always know where to find it. Logos will even build your bibliography for you.
By observing how the word was used in similar contexts, did you unearth any interesting insights? For example, look at other places your author used the word? Did he use it differently than other biblical writers? These are the kind of observations that lead to insightful conclusions.
Elements of Biblical Exegesis: A Basic Guide for Students and Ministers
A distinguished professor demystifies the process of exegeting a biblical passage. He breaks it all down into seven memorable steps which you’ll find yourself following again and again.Learn more
Understanding the significance of a biblical word can help you see a passage in an entirely new light. As long as you’re following the steps outlined here—and avoiding the pitfalls—you’re sure to find insights that were just waiting beneath the surface.