Product Guide to Greek Bible Texts
With the advent of version 2.0 of the Libronix Digital Library System (LDLS) and the release of Logos' Scholar's Library Silver Edition, Logos has significantly increased the number of Greek New Testament texts available for users of the LDLS, but many users aren't familiar with these texts or with the features that are now implemented in these texts with version 2.0 of the LDLS. This article provides additional detail on these texts for the user who may not be familar with them.
Greek New Testaments
A complete list of Greek New Testament editions now available in various packages of Logos Bible Software is included below. Note that several of these editions are brand new. Others have been updated with the version 2.0 release of the LDLS. The new and updated resources are discussed here...
NA27/UBS4 Greek Text with GRAMCORD™ Greek New Testament Alpha Morphological Database
This text (NA27) is the standard text of the Greek New Testament, the same textual basis as the main body text of the Nestle-Aland 27th Edition and the United Bible Societies' Fourth Edition of the Greek New Testament. The Logos version of this text is so much more than simply Greek Text, however. For each word in the New Testament, the following information is available:
- Morphological classification according to the GRAMCORD™ v5.5 Alpha Morphological Database
- Greek lemma according to the GRAMCORD™ v5.5 Alpha Morphological Database
- Context-sensitive English gloss
Most newer translations of the New Testament (in a number of languages) are based primarily on this text, therefore access to the NA27/UBS4 text is essential for the student who desires to use the Greek New Testament to compliment his studies.
The NA27 is fully searchable through these differing types of data. One could search for occurrances of a particular Greek lemma throughout the text. Conversely, one could use the morphological search dialog to search for particular instances of grammatical constructs.
The interlinear version (NA27INT) offers transliterations of Greek inflected forms and lemmas as well as a context-sensitive literal English translation for each Greek word. This allows the student with little Greek knowledge to use the interlinear as a bridge to access detailed Greek lexicons and dictionaries.
The Analytical Greek New Testament
The Analytical Greek New Testament (AGNT) is new to Logos Bible Software. The editors are Timothy and Barbara Friberg, and therefore this text is also known as the Friberg Morphology by some. Originally published in print by Baker Book House, this highly valuable resource compliments the functionality of the NA27. That is, this text is implemented exactly the same as NA27. It contains the same basic elements:
- Morphological classification according to the AGNT
- Greek lemma according to the AGNT
- Context-sensitive English gloss
In addition, the AGNT contains a treasure trove of background information on the philosophy and process of the Friberg's valuable work. The front and back matter included with the AGNT allow one to come to a better understanding of how to access and use the AGNT to its fullest extent.
The Friberg's morphological classification scheme is much different than the GRAMCORD™ classification, yet both syntaxes are supported in the LDLS. The LDLS uses data types to represent these schemes, so the number of different schemes that may be supported (as alternate morphologies come to market) are not limited by the internal workings of the LDLS.
Note that the AGNT is designed to be used with its complementary lexicon, the Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament
Westcott and Hort (1881) with Morphology
Thanks to the efforts of Dr. Maurice Robinson, this edition of the Westcott-Hort 1881 text has been morphologically analyzed and is now accessible through the LDLS.
The Westcott and Hort text is the product of scholarship of the last half of the 19th century. As manuscripts and fragments were re-discovered in monasteries and other locations across Africa and the Middle East, the science of textual criticism matured out of necessity. The new textual evidence prompted re-examination of existing manuscripts and comparison with these new manuscripts. The Westcott and Hort text of 1881 attempted to synthesize much of this information and create an edition of the Greek New Testament with what B.F. Westcott and F.J.A. Hort determined were the most probable readings, as determined by systematic application of text-critical principles, from the myriad of manuscripts and fragments available. This is the first major appearance of an edition of the Greek New Testament based primarily on an Egyptian (or Alexandrian) family of texts. Several texts (those of Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles, etc.) using Alexandrian readings had been published. Some were met with hostility. The Westcott-Hort text, however, was accepted on a much larger scale than any of these predecessors largely due to the groundwork the preceeding editions laid. Westcott and Hort had transcriptions of Constantine Tischendorf's newly re-discovered Codex Sinaiticus, one of the oldest complete manuscripts of the New Testament in Greek, as well as other newly re-discovered manuscripts to guide them. Today's NA27/UBS4 text hails from this tradition and is the refinement of much of Westcott and Hort's work with the assimilation of new manuscript data as it has become available.
Even though this text uses a morphological scheme different from both the GRAMCORD™ morphological database and the AGNT morphological database, the LDLS supports this scheme, allowing the user to fully utilize Dr. Robinson's work in the course of the study of the New Testament.
Byzantine Text Form, 2000 Revision with Morphology
Scrivener's Textus Receptus (1894) with Morphology
Stephen's Textus Receptus (1550) with Morphology
Elzevir Textus Receptus (1624) with Morphology
These four texts really deserve to be described as a group. Thanks to the efforts of Dr. Maurice Robinson, these texts have been digitized and morphologically analyzed and are now available as LDLS compatible resources. The Byzantine and Textus Receptus editions hail from the same textual tradition. They are represented in the earliest printed Greek manuscripts—beginning with Erasmus—and therefore are the textual basis of the New Testament for the earliest printed editions of English Bibles, such as the Bishop's Bible, Geneva Bible, Coverdale, and the King James Version. While some try to associate the King James Version New Testament to a particular manuscript, it is really linked to the "family" of texts that we today describe with the term "Textus Receptus"; texts like Stephen's and the Elzevir texts, as well as Beza's 1598 edition.
These four texts, for the first time in the LDLS, are available completely morphologically analyzed thanks to the efforts of Dr. Robinson. Even though they use a morphological scheme different from both the GRAMCORD™ morphological database and the AGNT morphological database, the LDLS supports this scheme, allowing the user to fully utilize Dr. Robinson's work in the course of the study of the New Testament.