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What Is Spiritual Formation—and Why Does It Matter?

man reading bible spiritual formation

I heard the word “discipleship” frequently growing up. My Bible teachers and pastors spoke on this topic, explaining how it bolsters the Christian life. However, not until recently did I hear the related phrase “spiritual formation.” Initially, I wondered if this was some new, contemporary concept, but I soon realized that was not the case.

Keep reading to learn more about how spiritual formation differs from discipleship, when spiritual formation started, the disciplines of spiritual formation, and more—or skip to what interests you.

What is spiritual formation?

Before we talk about spiritual formation, let’s first define discipleship. Chris Byrely writes in the Lexham Theological Wordbook:

Discipleship is the process of devoting oneself to a teacher to learn from and become more like them. For the Christian, this refers to the process of learning the teachings of Jesus and following after his example in obedience through the power of the Holy Spirit. Discipleship not only involves the process of becoming a disciple but of making other disciples through teaching and evangelism.1

We see discipleship in the New Testament as Jesus’ disciples give up their entire lives to follow and learn from him (Luke 6:40). For Christians today, it’s the process of learning how to think and act as a follower of Jesus within the context of a faith community. (See Titus 2:4; 2 Tim 2:2; Eph 6:4; Matt 28:20; Heb 3:13; 1 Pet 4:10.)

So how does spiritual formation differ from discipleship?

Paul Pettit insightfully defines the phrase in his book Foundations of Spiritual Formation:

Spiritual formation . . . is the ongoing process of the triune God transforming the believer’s life and character toward the life and character of Jesus Christ—accomplished by the ministry of the Spirit in the context of biblical community.2

Though spiritual formation and discipleship both involve a process of growth and change, spiritual formation is directed by the transformative work of the Holy Spirit in the believer’s life, whereas discipleship is the ongoing process by which the believer learns to live as a transformed individual. Spiritual formation begins with the understanding that we are sinners in need of a Savior. Then, once saved, God calls us to change—to allow the Holy Spirit to begin working in our life so we can become more and more like him.

The essence of spiritual formation is this: hearing God in his Word, growing in the grace and knowledge of Jesus, and bearing lasting fruit (Gal 5:19–23).

When and how did spiritual formation start?

Let’s explore the origin of spiritual formation to gain insight into its background before delving into a deeper study of what it means for believers today.

The early Church

Though you might not have heard of spiritual formation before, it has actually been around since the early Church, and it will serve us well to understand how and why it played such an instrumental role in that setting.

In The Christian Educator’s Handbook on Spiritual Formation, Kenneth O. Gangel and Jim Wilhoit explain that spiritual formation was the focus of Christian ministry in the early Church. They write that “it began with a period of teaching from the Bible and discipling for those seeking salvation in Jesus Christ” and “took special focus in the reception of baptism.”3

Baptism contributed to spiritual formation by bringing the instructed faith of catechumens to a specific act of entrustment into Christ with spiritual rebirth and incorporation into the Church. From this point on, new Christians were to live out the life of the Spirit in communion with Christ and his Church.4

In addition to baptism, the early Church practiced spiritual formation through liturgy. In doing so, they were able to “form habits of worship [that] would characterize their Christian experience.”5

Perhaps the early Church’s greatest display of spiritual formation manifested itself through the believers’ perseverance to hold fast to their faith, despite worldly temptation. According to Gangel and Wilhoit, their “faith was put to the test and brought to its fullness in the necessity of participating in the sufferings of Christ, even to the point of death.”6

The Puritans

The sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Puritans practiced spiritual formation too.

Gangel and Wilhoit point out that “[the Puritans’] distinctive contribution to our thinking about spiritual formation is the claim that all of life is God’s.”7

They viewed their work as a means to practice spiritual formation in that “while most Christians have seen the possibility of serving God in their work, the Puritan ideal was to serve God through or by that work.”8

They also recognized the family unit as a channel for spiritual formation. Within the family, the Puritans prioritized the teaching of “Christian doctrine and morals,” as well as catechism.9

Interestingly, the Puritans even set aside devoted time to enhance their practice of spiritual formation:

[What] made the Puritan home a keystone of spiritual formation for every member of the family was the endearing practice of families’ calling their private thanksgiving days and fast days, attended by friends and neighbors.10

Gangel and Wilhoit sum up the Puritan’s approach to spiritual formation well:

[Their] spiritual life was rooted in such specifically devotional acts as Bible reading, prayer, and church attendance, but it extended equally to the daily routine of work and family living.11

There’s no denying that both the early Church and Puritans took spiritual formation seriously. And knowing the context of spiritual formation in these settings provides a great segue to our modern-day understanding of spiritual formation and the disciplines it entails.

Learn how Logos can help you research more about topics like spiritual formation.

What are the disciplines of spiritual formation?

Spiritual formation may be exercised both internally and corporately. While God commands his children to worship with one another, he also invites us to maintain a personal relationship with him.

Internal disciplines

Spiritual formation starts with the intentional molding of our inner, more personal disciplines—namely, prayer, the study of God’s Word, and biblical meditation.

Prayer

Sometimes, we remember to pray only when we need or want something. However, we should not take this primary means of conversing with our Savior lightly.

In Spiritual Formation: Ever Forming, Never Formed, Peter K. Nelson explains that “at the center of the Christian life is an ongoing conversation between God and his children.”12

God speaks to us through his Holy Spirit, but it is up to us to respond to him and engage in that conversation.

Nelson describes how, and when, we should pray:

Believers then reciprocate through prayer: God speaks, we respond, and the conversation goes forward. Prayer is much more than asking God for favors. It takes many forms, from jubilant praise to cries of sorrow, from heartfelt thanks to desperate pleas for help, from humble confession to bold appeals for life transformation.13

Furthermore, Scripture sets forth models of prayer for us to follow. One prime example of this is The Lord’s Prayer in Matthew 6:

Pray then like this: “Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.” (vv. 9–13)

In addition to exchanging verbal communication with your Savior, fasting—abstaining from food to focus on spiritual matters—is another form of prayer that many include in their growth journey. Nelson writes:

Fasting is a kind of prayer in which we “say” to God, using body language, that we long for his presence and working in our lives more than we long for our next meal. Practicing the spiritual disciplines expands our “vocabulary” for interaction with God and enriches our experience of resting in his presence.14

Fasting may render us physically hungry, but hopefully, that will only cause us to hunger for conversation with our Lord even more.

Study of the Word

Prayer is powerful, but so is Scripture—our ultimate user’s manual for Christlike transformation.

In his introduction to Spiritual Formation: Ever Forming, Never Formed, Jonathan Morrow says that “God’s Word is the primary and objective source of truth about Christ and what it means to follow him.”15

Since Scripture is elevated to this level, we shouldn’t ignore it. Rather, we should view our daily consumption of God’s Word as our lifeblood. Alongside the Holy Spirit’s continual working in us, reading and studying the Bible will keep us spiritually alive, especially in moments of desperation when nothing else can.

Alongside the Holy Spirit’s continual working in us, reading and studying the Bible will keep us spiritually alive, especially in moments of desperation when nothing else can.

Morrow provides even greater insight into why spending time in God’s Word is so important:

Exposure to God’s Word provides many benefits to our journey of spiritual formation, such as stability (Eph 4:12–15), insight/guidance (Ps 119:9–10; Prov 3:5–6), and spiritual maturity (1 Pet 2:2–3; cf. 1 Cor 3:1–3; Heb 5:14).16

Despite its importance, believers sometimes downplay the value of developing a strong relationship with God through the reading and studying of his Word. For Pettit, this discipline is paramount for learning to follow the Spirit’s leading. He writes, “If we wish to continue walking with God, particularly as we immerse ourselves in God’s Word, God promises his divine promptings within.”17

We can trust this promise and rely on Isaiah 55:11, which promises that the study of God’s Word will not return void:

So shall my word be that goes out from my mouth; it shall not return to me empty, but it shall accomplish that which I purpose, and shall succeed in the thing for which I sent it.

God’s Word is powerful and will accomplish what he intends. But we have to dig into it and pay attention to what it says for it to transform our minds and hearts.

Biblical meditation

The book of Psalms frequently mentions the word “meditation,” even as early as the second verse of chapter one when David speaks of the characteristics of a righteous person:

But his delight is in the law of the Lord, and on his law he meditates day and night.

Another reference occurs in Psalm 19 as part of David’s plea that the “meditation of [his] heart be acceptable in [God’s] sight.”

Psalm 119 outlines the breadth of God’s nature for our meditation: his precepts, statutes, wondrous works, testimonies, and promises.

Knowing this scriptural basis gives reason for practicing biblical meditation.

Nelson says biblical meditation is a practice that’s “realistic about our distracted lives and the need to become quiet and calm in the Lord’s presence.”18

For Nelson, the process involves mulling Scripture over and digesting its life-sustaining message so that it begins to change his heart and mind.19

Ultimately, internal spiritual formation focuses on God and deepens our relationship with him. Nelson affirms this:

Whether we pray, study Scripture, take some time off for silence before God or take time now and again for a retreat, the goal is always to recenter our relationship to God in a manner that prepares us for daily life and engagement.20

Fortunately, the value of developing a personal relationship with God has been widely recognized among those in a position to exhort others to do so.

Evangelical leaders believe in the importance of the Christian becoming individually conformed more and more into the image of Jesus Christ. And they take seriously those admonishments that call the believer to mature and grow in Jesus Christ.21

Since we are taught to meditate on Christ and all that he’s done for us, we should heed this instruction, all the while drawing closer to him.

Corporate disciplines

In addition to intentionally cultivating the internal disciplines of spiritual formation, we ought to integrate the corporate disciplines into our lives.

Before delving into its particulars, let’s not discount the importance of continuing to nurture our personal faith within the corporate setting. Nelson writes:

Even if a group or community makes a positive response to Christ together, to be genuine that faith needs to extend to and be the experience of individual believers. A corporate Christianity that doesn’t rest on the foundation of the personal faith of particular people lacks authenticity.22

Now let’s unpack how to exercise the corporate disciplines.

Worship in community

Pettit speaks to how Christians, as individuals, should fit into the corporate picture. He says that “all believers should be growing as individual believers in community.” He further explains that “Christians should find their place of service and participation within the larger, corporate body, the Church.”23

The value of interdependence within the body is an essential element to growing a community centered on spiritual formation, especially concerning 1 Corinthians 12:12–13:24

For just as the body is one and has many members, and all the members of the body, though many, are one body, so it is with Christ. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body—Jews or Greeks, slaves or free—and all were made to drink of one Spirit.

Furthermore, Nelson addresses the necessity of every member to meet the needs of the entire corporate body. Just as each body part differs vastly from one to the other but is essential to the entire body, every Christian is unique but essential to the Church.25

Unfortunately, despite its affirmed importance, some do not prioritize the practice of spiritual formation in community.

Nonetheless, the writer of Hebrews encourages us to gather corporately:

And let us consider how to stir up one another to love and good works, not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another, and all the more as you see the Day drawing near. (10:24–25)

Gathering with other believers for worship benefits the body of Christ, increasing our love for and service toward one another.

Gangel and Wilhoit speak to the urgent need for the practice of corporate spiritual formation in today’s world:

Group growth, the spiritual maturation of people whom God has brought together in what we call a congregation, truly represents a major need in this disconnected society.26

Our internal worship of God is not alone sufficient for the practice of spiritual formation. We need community, we need other believers, and we need to worship corporately.

Worship in song

Undoubtedly, the practice of congregational singing is uplifting. And Scripture encourages believers to take part in it. Consider what Paul says about praising God with other believers through song in Colossians 3:16:

Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly, teaching and admonishing one another in all wisdom, singing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, with thankfulness in your hearts to God. (Emphasis added)

Singing is a great asset to corporate spiritual formation. It’s unifying; it enhances our worship; it focuses our hearts and minds on God’s attributes and the truths he wants to communicate to us.

In his essay “That’s Why We Sing,” Darryl Tippens sheds light on the real value of congregational singing:

[O]ur congregational hymns possess a unique capacity to address the human hunger for God. In mysterious ways, sacred song connects the head and the heart, inspiring devotion, repentance, sorrow, joy, and reverence.27

Tippens also relates singing to spiritual formation:

Anyone serious about spiritual formation will give considerable attention to sacred music—the music of congregational worship, the music of youth groups and youth gatherings, the music that fills our homes and automobiles, the music that fills our lives.28

Congregational song involves three audiences: God, self, and one another. We sing to God about God, we sing to ourselves to align our hearts with truth, and we sing to one another to exhort each other.

Singing corporately does more than accomplish the vocal worship of God; it’s a beautiful way to take part in the practice of spiritual formation alongside brothers and sisters in Christ.

Singing corporately does more than accomplish the vocal worship of God; it’s a beautiful way to take part in the practice of spiritual formation alongside brothers and sisters in Christ.

Confession

Lastly, one of the most powerful corporate disciplines is confession. Sin, especially secret sin, has the power to greatly divide any corporate body if not dealt with biblically.

Consider James 5:16:

Therefore, confess your sins to one another and pray for one another, that you may be healed. The prayer of a righteous person has great power as it is working.

Notice James tells us to confess our sins “to one another.” Yes, we can (and should!) confess our sins privately to God, but something transformative happens when individuals within the body of Christ confess their sins to one another. Nelson explains the significance of this passage. He says that “taking James 5:16 seriously requires us to open our hearts to trusted fellow believers.” Secret sin is toxic, he writes. “There’s wisdom in the adage ‘You’re as sick as your secrets.’”29

In his commentary on James, William Varner references additional passages on public confession.30 Mark 1:5 and Matthew 3:6 speak of believers’ confession at baptism, Acts 19:18 mentions the confession of new believers, and 1 John 1:9 relays this great promise to us:

If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.

Though the thought of public confession may cause us to squirm in our seats a bit, we can’t let fear of man, and ultimately pride and cowardice, get the better of us. In fact, confessing sin to another believer will not only help you grow in your relationship with Christ, but your transparency may encourage the other person to do the same:

Christians may conceal secret sins because they suppose others will reject them if they open up. However, very often when one believer is daring enough to speak out about a personal sin struggle, others will quickly and thankfully step up and acknowledge they, too, face such a battle.31

We see this modeled many times throughout Scripture. For example, after the Israelites worshiped pagan gods, Judges 10:7 says God “burned with anger” against them (NLT). Upon realizing their failure, the Israelites corporately confess their sins to God:

And the people of Israel cried out to the Lord, saying, “We have sinned against you, because we have forsaken our God and have served the Baals.”

Once they confessed their corporate sin, God looked upon Israel with compassion (v. 15). We can learn from the Israelites’ example and be fervent to practice corporate confession too.

Resources about spiritual formation

A Long Obedience in the Same Direction: Discipleship in an Instant Society, Commemorative Edition

A Long Obedience in the Same Direction: Discipleship in an Instant Society, Commemorative Edition

Regular price: $18.99

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Spiritual Disciplines for the Christian Life

Spiritual Disciplines for the Christian Life

Regular price: $12.99

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Simplify Your Spiritual Life: Spiritual Disciplines for the Overwhelmed

Simplify Your Spiritual Life: Spiritual Disciplines for the Overwhelmed

Regular price: $8.99

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Mobile Ed: PD201 Introducing Spiritual Formation (10 hour course)

Mobile Ed: PD201 Introducing Spiritual Formation (10 hour course)

Regular price: $379.99

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The Discipline of Grace: God’s Role and Our Role in the Pursuit of Holiness

The Discipline of Grace: God’s Role and Our Role in the Pursuit of Holiness

Regular price: $8.99

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You Are What You Love: The Spiritual Power of Habit

You Are What You Love: The Spiritual Power of Habit

Regular price: $24.99

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The Spirit of the Disciplines: Understanding How God Changes Lives (audio)

The Spirit of the Disciplines: Understanding How God Changes Lives (audio)

Regular price: $14.98

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Choose the Life: Exploring a Faith That Embraces Discipleship

Choose the Life: Exploring a Faith That Embraces Discipleship

Regular price: $16.99

Add to cart

Study the Word, organize your prayer list, and grow as a disciple using Logos.

14 verses on spiritual formation in the Bible

Though the phrase “spiritual formation” is not in the Bible, numerous references speak to the concept of spiritual formation.

The following 14 verses, from both the Old and New Testaments, speak of God’s intention for the progression of spiritual formation. Click to open and explore what the Bible says on each topic.

On the importance of God’s Word 

Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly, teaching and admonishing one another in all wisdom, singing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, with thankfulness in your hearts to God. (Col 3:16)

Having purified your souls by your obedience to the truth for a sincere brotherly love, love one another earnestly from a pure heart, since you have been born again, not of perishable seed but of imperishable, through the living and abiding word of God. (1 Pet 1:22–23)

For as the rain and the snow come down from heaven and do not return there but water the earth, making it bring forth and sprout, giving seed to the sower and bread to the eater, so shall my word be that goes out from my mouth; it shall not return to me empty, but it shall accomplish that which I purpose, and shall succeed in the thing for which I sent it. (Isa 55:10–11)

On the importance of prayer

Do not be anxious about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. And the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. (Phil 4:6–7)

Call to me and I will answer you, and will tell you great and hidden things that you have not known. (Jer 33:3)

If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him. (Jas 1:5)
Trust in him at all times, O people; pour out your heart before him; God is a refuge for us. Selah. (Ps 62:8)

On growth

And I am sure of this, that he who began a good work in you will bring it to completion at the day of Jesus Christ. (Phil 1:6)

But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen. (2 Pet 3:18)

Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us. (Heb 12:1)

And as for what fell among the thorns, they are those who hear, but as they go on their way they are choked by the cares and riches and pleasures of life, and their fruit does not mature. As for that in the good soil, they are those who, hearing the word, hold it fast in an honest and good heart, and bear fruit with patience. (Luke 8:14–15)

When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I gave up childish ways. For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I have been fully known. (1 Cor 13:11–12)

On our responsibility

My son, be attentive to my words; incline your ear to my sayings. Let them not escape from your sight; keep them within your heart. For they are life to those who find them, and healing to all their flesh. Keep your heart with all vigilance, for from it flow the springs of life. Put away from you crooked speech, and put devious talk far from you. (Prov 4:20–24)


But be doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving yourselves. For if anyone is a hearer of the word and not a doer, he is like a man who looks intently at his natural face in a mirror. For he looks at himself and goes away and at once forgets what he was like. But the one who looks into the perfect law, the law of liberty, and perseveres, being no hearer who forgets but a doer who acts, he will be blessed in his doing. (Jas 1:22–25)

These passages provide guidance on how believers should implement the practice of spiritual formation into our lives, and careful attention to them will only heighten our awareness of and attention to the topic.

See how Logos can help you research any word or topic in Scripture—in seconds.

Tools to help with spiritual formation

The Holy Spirit is the primary agent in charge of your sanctification—the process of being made more like Christ, holy and set apart for God’s use. Your transformation into Christlikeness is a gift of God’s grace, but you can find practical tools to help you on your journey.

One such tool is the Logos Bible app. It will not only help you better understand God’s Word—with step-by-step guidance through devotional study and the praying of Scripture—but also provides powerful features to enhance your daily Bible reading and study routine. Here are three.

Logos Workflows

Lectio Divina Workflow

There’s nothing quite like the slow, contemplative reading of Scripture paired with a heart and mind that are open and attentive to the voice of the Spirit. Lectio Divina—a four-step method of prayer and meditative Bible reading to encourage communion with God—is one way to train our souls so that the word of Christ might “dwell in us richly” (Col 3:16). Logos Workflows are invaluable for this type of guided study because they show you step by step what to do. For instance, you can use a prebuilt Lectio Divina Workflow that intentionally guides you through Scripture to help you become more receptive and willing to listen to God’s voice.

Praying Scripture Workflow

John Piper writes: “If we don’t form the habit of praying the Scriptures, our prayers will almost certainly degenerate into vain repetitions that eventually revolve entirely around our immediate private concerns, rather than God’s larger purposes.” The Praying Scripture Workflow in Logos ensures that your prayers are anchored to God’s truth and aligned with his will. Free with Logos Basic, the Praying Scripture Workflow encourages you to find the content of your prayers in the Bible through six aspects of prayer: adoration, confession, thanksgiving, supplication, consecration, and intercession.

Learn more about Workflows, or watch this video:

Reading Plans

Setting aside dedicated time every day to read books on spiritual formation in Logos, or simply reading through the Bible in an organized manner, is easy when you set up a Logos Reading Plan. Choose from a predefined plan or customize your own, then read by yourself or with another person or group for accountability. (You can even access reading plans on the go with the Logos Bible app.)

Learn more about Logos Reading Plans.

The Notes Tool & Notebooks

Taking the time to journal what you hear from the Holy Spirit while reading God’s Word is incredibly important. With the Notes Tool in Logos, you can document your spiritual formation journey, recording times when you hear God’s voice most directly. Reminders of these intimate occasions with your Savior will carry you during more difficult times and encourage you to press on in your journey toward becoming more like him.

The Notes Tool will help you keep all your notes and highlights organized in Notebooks so you can easily access them later or share them with others.

Learn more about Logos Notebooks.

A lifelong process

Spiritual formation is not a one-size-fits-all package—it looks different for every person and is a lifelong process. Some people will feel like they grow most when they fast and pray, while others may feel closest to God when worshiping alongside other believers.

Regardless of which spiritual formation elements are most comfortable for you, consider incorporating both internal and corporate disciplines into your life—you will only benefit from doing so.

God calls all Christians to become more like Jesus through the power of the Holy Spirit (2 Cor 3:18). As you take steps to be intentional about your relationship with the Lord, allowing the Holy Spirit to direct your growth, you’ll find transformation happening in the innermost part of your being.

See how Logos can help you grow in your spiritual formation journey.

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  1. Chris Byrley, “Discipleship,” ed. Douglas Mangum et al., Lexham Theological Wordbook, Lexham Bible Reference Series (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2014).
  2. Paul Pettit, “Introduction,” in Foundations of Spiritual Formation, ed. Paul Pettit (Kregel Publications, 2008), 24.
  3. Kenneth O. Gangel and Jim Wilhoit, The Christian Educator’s Handbook on Spiritual Formation (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1994), 34.
  4. Gangel, The Christian Educator’s Handbook, 26.
  5. Gangel, The Christian Educator’s Handbook, 27.
  6. Gangel, The Christian Educator’s Handbook, 34.
  7. Gangel, The Christian Educator’s Handbook, 49.
  8. Gangel, The Christian Educator’s Handbook, 51.
  9. Gangel, The Christian Educator’s Handbook, 54.
  10. Gangel, The Christian Educator’s Handbook, 54.
  11. Gangel, The Christian Educator’s Handbook, 58.
  12. Peter K. Nelson, Spiritual Formation: Ever Forming, Never Formed (Westmont, IL: IVP Books, 2012).
  13. Nelson, Spiritual Formation.
  14. Nelson, Spiritual Formation.
  15. Jonathan Morrow, “Introducing Spiritual Formation,” in Foundations of Spiritual Formation, ed. Paul Pettit (Kregel Publications, 2008), 45.
  16. Morrow, “Introducing Spiritual Formation,” 45.
  17. Klaus Issler, “The Soul and Spiritual Formation,” in Foundations of Spiritual Formation, ed. Paul Pettit (Kregel Publications, 2008), 127.
  18. Nelson, Spiritual Formation.
  19. Nelson, Spiritual Formation.
  20. Darrell L. Bock, “New Testament Community and Spiritual Formation,” in Foundations of Spiritual Formation, ed. Paul Pettit (Kregel Publications, 2008), 105.
  21. Pettit, “Introduction,” 21
  22. Nelson, Spiritual Formation.
  23. Pettit, “Introduction.” 22.
  24. Nelson, Spiritual Formation.
  25. Nelson, Spiritual Formation.
  26. Gangel, The Christian Educator’s Handbook, 115.
  27. Darryl Tippens, That’s Why We Sing: Reclaiming the Wonder of Congregational Singing (Abilene, TX: Leafwood Publishers, 2011).
  28. Tippens, That’s Why We Sing.
  29. Nelson, Spiritual Formation.
  30. William Varner, James, ed. H. Wayne House, W. Hall Harris III, and Andrew W. Pitts, Evangelical Exegetical Commentary (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2012), 544.
  31. Nelson, Spiritual Formation.
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Written by
Katie French
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Written by Katie French