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Pauline Studies Bundle, ver. 2, L (33 vols.)
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Overview

This base package supplement includes several volumes that look closely at specific passages of Paul’s letters and the challenging interpretive issues, as well an overview in Paul and His Letters by John B. Polhill. Other volumes address Acts’ accuracy, the relationship between Peter and Paul, and topics related to the New Perspective, justification, and atonement.

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New to Version 2
St. Paul’s Conceptions of the Last Things        
Between Horror and Hope: Paul’s Metaphorical Language of Death in Romans 6:1–11        
Saint Paul as Spiritual Director: An Analysis of the Imitation of Paul with Implications and Applications to the Practice of Spiritual Direction        
Reading Paul        
Also Included
Approaches to Paul        
Liberating Paul: The Justice of God and the Politics of the Apostle        
The Politics of Heaven: Women, Gender, and Empire in the Study of Paul        
Paul & His World: Interpreting the New Testament in Its Context        
Paul and the Popular Philosophers        
Paul and Palestinian Judaism        
Paul, Missionary Theologian        
Paul: Fresh Perspectives        
The Social Context of Paul’s Ministry: Tentmaking and Apostleship        
The Cities of St. Paul: Their Influence on His Life and Thought, the Cities of Eastern Asia Minor        
Meet Paul: An Encounter with the Apostle        
Reading Romans in Pompeii: Paul’s Letter at Ground Level        
The Arrogance of Nations: Reading Romans in the Shadow of Empire        
Galatians Re-Imagined        
The Making of Paul: Constructions of the Apostle in Early Christianity        
Paul’s Understanding of the Church’s Mission        
St. Paul and Justification        
Parallel Lives: The Relation of Paul to the Apostles in the Lucan Perspective        
Paul and Conflict Resolution: An Exegetical Study of Paul’s Apostolic Paradigm in 1 Corinthians 9        
The Saving Righteousness of God        
Secular and Christian Leadership in Corinth: A Socio-Historical and Exegetical Study of 1 Corinthians 1–6        
St. Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen        
Social-Science Commentary on the Letters of Paul        
Christ’s Body in Corinth: The Politics of a Metaphor        
Apostle to the Conquered: Reimagining Paul’s Mission        
Paul on the Cross        
Social-Science Commentary on the Book of Acts        
Contours of Pauline Theology: A Radical New Survey of the Influences on Paul’s Biblical Writings        
Paul and His Letters        
The Pauline Writings        
St. Paul and the Mystery Religions        
St. Paul’s Fight for Galatia        
The Teaching of Paul in Terms of the Present Day        
The Social Ethos of the Corinthian Correspondence        
Renewal through Suffering: A Study of 2 Corinthians        
Constructing the World: A Study in Paul’s Cosmological Language        
Paul, Poverty and Survival        
St. Paul: A Study in Social and Religious History        
Paul the Missionary        
St. Paul and the Roman Law, and Other Studies on the Origin of the Form of Doctrine        
Paul as Apostle to the Gentiles: His Apostolic Self-Awareness and Its Influence on the Soteriological Arguments in Romans        
Paul, Moses, and the History of Israel: The Letter/Spirit Contrast and the Argument from Scripture in 2 Corinthians 3        
Suffering and Ministry in the Spirit: Paul’s Defense of his Ministry in 2 Corinthians 2:14–3:3        

Key Features

  • Clear and reliable guide to issues in the contemporary study of Paul
  • Survey of the history of the principal perspectives on Paul’s relation to Judaism and the Jewish law
  • Examination of the many texts historically interpreted to support oppression or maintain the status quo
  • Critical essays on theology and eschatology in Paul’s letters
  • Demonstration of how Paul’s mission and drive were linked to his theological convictions
  • Focus on the apostle Paul and his work within the social and intellectual context of the Greek East of the early Roman Empire

Individual Titles

Approaches to Paul

  • Author: Magnus Zetterholm
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Pages: 288
  • Available in: S, M, L, XL

What distinguishes the “new perspective on Paul”—and what lies beyond it? What are scholars saying about Paul and the Roman Empire or about the intersection between feminist and postcolonial interpretation of Paul? Magnus Zetterholm provides a clear and reliable guide to these and other lively issues in the contemporary study of Paul, surveying the history of the principal perspectives on Paul’s relation to Judaism and the Jewish law and showing the relationships between answers given to those questions and the assumptions scholars bring to other issues as well. This is an indispensable handbook for the beginning student of the apostle and his thought.

Introducing anyone to the complex development in Paul studies in the last two centuries, or even just the last few decades, presents a daunting task. Zetterholm provides a clear, concise discussion of the issues and various solutions offered. Just as importantly, he examines each in dynamic interaction with the others. This is a unique resource for the teacher as well as the student—an indispensable classroom text for the study of Paul.

—Soebbing Visiting Scholar, Rockhurst University

This extremely useful book provides a wealth of unformation on the history of modern Pauline scholarship. The book is remarkably fair and accurate in its descriptions of scholars’ work. Best of all, it is a one-of-a-kind resource for teachers who wish to provide students with a thorough, clear, and balanced overview of the various perspectives on Paul.

—Pamela Eisenbaum, associate professor of Biblical studies, Iliff School of Theology, Denver

Magnus Zetterholm is an associate professor of New Testament studies at Lund University in Sweden. He is the author of The Formation of Christianity in Antioch: A Social-Scientific Approach to the Separation Between Judaism and Christiantity, editor of The Messiah in Early Judaism and Christianity, and coeditor of The Ancient Synagogue from Its Origins until 200 C.E.

Liberating Paul: The Justice of God and the Politics of the Apostle

  • Author: Neil Elliott
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Pages: 308
  • Available in: S, M, L, XL

For centuries the apostle Paul has been invoked to justify oppression—whether on behalf of slavery, to enforce unquestioned obedience to the state, to silence women, or to legitimate anti-Semitism. To interpret Paul is thus to set foot on a terrible battleground between spiritual forces. But as Neil Elliott argues, the struggle to liberate human beings from the power of Death requires “Liberating Paul” from his enthrallment to that power. In this book, Elliott shows that what many people experience as the scandal of Paul is the unfortunate consequence of the way Paul has usually been read, or rather misread, in the churches.

In the first half of the book, Elliott examines the many texts historically interpreted to support oppression or maintain the status quo. He shows how often Paul’s authentic message has been interpreted in the light of later pseudo-Pauline writings.

In Part Two, Elliott applies a “political key” to the interpretation of Paul. Though subsequent centuries have turned the cross into a symbol of Christian piety, Elliott forcefully reminds us that in Paul’s time this was the Roman mode of executing rebellious slaves, a fact that has profound political implications.

Under Elliott’s examination, a startlingly new image of Paul begins to emerge, liberated from layers of false interpretation, and free to speak a liberating and challenging word to our world today.

In Liberating Paul, Neil Elliot shows how modern interpreters have become accomplices in the ancient campaign to portray Paul as an acolyte of the prevailing order and its values. By penetrating exegesis and sharp political acumen, Elliot reinstates Paul as the agitator and martyr that he really was.

—Walter Wink, Auburn Theological Seminary

A comprehensive political analysis of Paul from the point of view of the oppressed. As the ambiguous title suggests, he is liberating Paul from centuries of misinterpretation by offering a fresh analysis that shows how liberating Paul really was. . . Liberating Paul is an impressive rethinking of Paul.

—David Rhoads, Lutheran School of Theology, Chicago

Honest, provocative, and persuasive. . . This is an important study, worthy of serious consideration.

—Vincent L. Wimbush, Claremont Graduate University

Neil Elliott received his doctorate from Princeton Theological Seminary and has taught New Testament for more than 15 years, chiefly at the College of St. Catherine and United Theological Seminary of the Twin Cities. He is a Biblical studies editor at Fortress Press and author of The Rhetoric of Romans. An Episcopal priest, he is also a frequent contributor to The Witness, the online social-justice journal.

The Politics of Heaven: Women, Gender, and Empire in the Study of Paul

  • Author: Joseph A. Marchal
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Pages: 256
  • Available in: S, M, L, XL

In this provocative study, Joseph A. Marchal argues that biblical interpretation, but most especially Pauline studies, must engage the full range of critical challenges brought by feminist studies, postcolonial studies, and Roman imperial studies. A feminist, postcolonial analysis requires negotiating the gaps, overlaps, and tensions between these three “strands” by adopting an explicitly multi-axial focus and an interdisciplinary methodology. Using Philippians as a test case, the analysis covers issues of both ancient and contemporary import: from imitation and authority to travel and contact. As a result, Marchal provides strikingly new perspectives on Paul’s letters and fresh challenges to the paradigms of Pauline interpretation.

In The Politics of Heaven, Joseph Marchal skillfully engages feminist and postcolonial analysis in order to explore the rhetorics of Paul’s letter to the Philippians in its Roman imperial context. He develops a tightly crafted, multifaceted, and nuanced approach to the “colonized kyriarchal space” of both the letter and the reader. This book is a fresh contribution to a new evolving rhetorical paradigm in scholarship on Paul. It is a must read for anyone in Pauline studies, and I highly recommend it to students and faculty alike.

—Elisabeth Schussler Fiorenza, Krister Stendahl Professor, Harvard Divinity School

Joseph A. Marchal is an assistant professor of religious studies at Grinnell College and the author of numerous articles and papers in feminist and postcolonial interpretation.

Paul & His World: Interpreting the New Testament in Its Context

  • Author: Helmut Koester
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Pages: 320
  • Available in: S, M, L, XL

This volume presents critical essays on theology and eschatology in Paul’s letters, the apostle’s religious and cultural context, and the interaction of early Christianity with its Greco-Roman environment, as reflected in ancient literature and archaeological remains.

Helmut Koester is John H. Morison Research Professor of Divinity and Winn Research Professor of Ecclesiastical History at Harvard Divinity School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and chair of the New Testament Board of the Hermeneia Commentary Series.

Paul and the Popular Philosophers

  • Author: Abraham J. Malherbe
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Pages: 212
  • Available in: S, M, L, XL

These studies continue a tradition of scholarship that flourished around the turn of the century when new editions of ancient philosophical sources were published. Professor Malherbe, however, widens the scope to include other philosophical traditions. He recognizes and identifies the influences of Platonists, Peripatetics, Cynics, Stoics, Epicureans, and Pythagoreans. These popular philosophers aimed at moral reform; they shared both in their substance and in the techniques employed. Yet, they need to be distinguished in order to discern their influence, if any, on Paul.

Professor Abraham J. Malherbe has already given us fresh insights to the understanding of Paul’s letters, ones which have been widely accepted. This volume presents the most important of them; Malherbe shows Paul interacting with the philosophical questions and solutions of his day. Indebted to international scholarship stretching back to the beginning of this century, Malherbe here presents his own coherent view of Paul.

—Dieter H. Lührmann, Marburg University

Abraham J. Malherbe is Buckingham Professor of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation, Emeritus, at Yale University, The Divinity School in New Haven, Connecticut.

Paul and Palestinian Judaism

  • Author: E. P. Sanders
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 1977
  • Pages: 500
  • Available in: S, M, L, XL

Paul and Palestinian Judaism compares Judaism—understood on its own terms, with Paul—understood on his own terms. Sanders aims to:

  • Consider methodologically how to compare two (or more) related but different religions
  • Destroy the view of Rabinic Judaism which is still prevalent in much, perhaps most, New Testament scholarship
  • Establish a different view of Rabbinic Judaism
  • Argue a case concerning Palestinian Judaism as a whole
  • Argue for a certain understanding of Paul
  • Carry out a comparison of Paul and Palestinian Judaism

This landmark volume makes a contribution not only to the understanding of Paul and his relationship to Judaism, but also to the study of Judaism itself.

In the past three decades reasons have accumulated for a transformation of our whole picture of Judaism in the first-century Palestine. Sanders has listened to those reasons; he has done his homework; and he undertakes here to shift the question about Paul’s relation to that Judaism into a fundamentally different perspective. For New Testament students still trapped in Billerbeck-and-Kittel scholarship, the book will be revolutionary. For everyone who tries to understand early Judaism or the Christian movement that emerged from it, Sanders’ work requires a thorough re-thinking of our assumptions.

—Wayne A. Meeks, Yale University

Professor Ed Sanders is dissatisfied with the two prevalent modes of explaining Paul: one, to pit the supposedly essential elements of his preaching against supposedly comparable ones in traditional Judaism; the other, to inspect as many particular motifs as possible with a view to establishing dependence or independence. His method is holistic, i.e., he focuses on the basic functioning of religions, on patterns which, he holds, are revealed chiefly in how you become and continue a member of the community. His profound, novel analysis of a vast material makes this one of the few truly creative, exciting works on the subject.

—David Daube, University of California, Berkeley

E. P. Sanders is an arts and science professor of religion at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. His other Fortress Press books include Paul, the Laws, and the Jewish Peopleand Jesus and Judaism, winner of the 1990 Louisville Grawemeyer Award in Religion.

Paul, Missionary Theologian

  • Author: Robert Reymond
  • Publisher: Christian Focus Publications
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Pages: 640
  • Available in: S, M, L, XL

What was it that propelled Paul to work so hard and against such great odds to evangelize his world? Theologian Robert Reymond demonstrates how Paul’s mission and drive were linked to his theological convictions. This work is broken up into two parts. Part one chronicles Paul’s missionary work while part two dissects the missionary theology that mobilized Paul. In the last chapter Reymond draws from his incredible research to communicate lessons to the Church and modern missionaries from Paul’s worldview and example.

Robert Reymond has written a useful survey of Paul’s missionary life and theology. The approach to the New Testament materials reflects a high view of their divine origin and authority. Of particular note is a serious defense of the now generally abandoned view that Paul was the author of Hebrews.

Douglas Moo

This is quite a book! It tackles a big subject and grapples with it in a big way. Scholars, ministers, theological students, and many general Christian readers will find much to stimulate and instruct them here.

—Dr. Geoffrey Grogan, Glasgow Bible College

This excellent volume examines Paul’s theology and practice of mission. Its scope is wide and touches upon areas of Pauline studies that have caused and continue to cause controversy. It is undoubtedly an inspiring and thought-provoking work.

—Dr. Paul Gardner, Vicar, Harford, Cheshire

Robert Reymond taught for more than 25 years on the faculties of Covenant Theological Seminary and Knox Theological Seminary. He holds a BA, MA, and PhD from Bob Jones University and did post-doctoral studies at Fuller Seminary, New York University, Union Seminary, Tyndale House, Cambridge, and Rutherford House, Edinburgh. Currently he is the emeritus professor of systematic theology at Knox Theological Seminary in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.

Paul: Fresh Perspectives

  • Author: N. T. Wright
  • Publisher: SPCK
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Pages: 192
  • Available in: S, M, L, XL

N. T. Wright, Bishop of Durham, scholar and writer of distinction, turns his attention and considerable enthusiasm to the writings of Paul of Tarsus, whom he considers to be the intellectual equivalent of Plato, Aristotle or Seneca. He captures and reveals illuminating details from Paul’s unique Judaic, Hellenistic, and Roman heritage, allowing a rounded picture to emerge of an integrated philosophy—a unique, Christian theology.

Paul: Fresh Perspectives combines the virtues of detailed scholarship with an accessible style and a passion for exploring the message of Paul. The book is based on the prestigious Hulsean Lectures given by the author in Cambridge in spring 2005.

Nicholas Tom Wright, commonly known as N. T. Wright or Tom Wright, is a professor of New Testament and early christianity at St. Andrews University. Previously, he was the bishop of Durham. He has researched, taught, and lectured on the New Testament at McGill, Oxford, and Cambridge Universities, and has been named by Christianity Today a top theologian. He is best known for his scholarly contributions to the historical study of Jesus and the New Perspective on Paul. His work interacts with the positions of James Dunn, E. P. Sanders, Marcus Borg, and Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Wright has written and lectured extensively around the world, authoring more than forty books and numerous articles in scholarly journals and popular periodicals. He is best known for his Christian Origins and the Question of God Series, of which three of the anticipated six volumes are finished.

The Social Context of Paul’s Ministry: Tentmaking and Apostleship

  • Author: Ronald F. Hock
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Pages: 114
  • Available in: S, M, L, XL

Ronald Hock focuses on the apostle Paul and his work within the social and intellectual context of the Greek East of the early Roman Empire. He discusses the New Testament evidence concerning tentmaking in relation to Paul’s life as an apostle of Christ. Relevant literary and nonliterary texts from outside the New Testament add detail to a picture of ancient society and open new areas for study. The author describes the typical experiences that arose from such a way of life—traveling, the tentmaking trade, the missionary use of the workshop, attitudes toward work, and Paul’s own reflections on the significance of his tentmaking for the apostolic self-understanding.

This book is adequately researched and documented for its scope. If the argument presented here is essentially correct, it provides socioeconomic anchorholds for many of the puzzling attitudes expressed by Paul about himself, his work, and his relationship to the communities of his mission.

The Catholic Biblical Quarterly

Paul’s choice of tentmaking was, Hock argues, not simply a response to the rabbinic ideal of study of Torah combined with labor; it was a conscious act to guard against any possible implication that he was an apostle for gain. This book adds a needed dimension to our understanding of Paul.

The Christian Century

Scholars and lay readers alike will find valuable information and insights in this ground-breaking investigation of Paul’s tentmaking.

Journal of Biblical Literature

Ronald F. Hock is a professor of religion at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. He is also author of The Infancy Gospels of James and Thomas in the Scholars Bible series and co-editor (with Edward N. O’Neil) of the three-volume The Chreia and Ancient Rhetoric.

St. Paul’s Conceptions of the Last Things

  • Author: Harry Angus Alexander Kennedy
  • Publisher: A. C. Armstrong
  • Publication Date: 1904
  • Pages: 370
  • Available in: M, L, XL

A concentrated and profound immersion into St. Paul’s eschatological standpoint, H. A. A. Kennedy examines the progression of Paul’s theological outlook and its many misunderstandings. Drawn from lectures that Kennedy gave at The University of Edinburgh, this compelling work demonstrates Paul’s conception of the Last Things, and how the importance of this understanding organized his religious thoughts.

Harry Angus Alexander Kennedy (1866–1934) was born in Dornoch, Sutherland. He was a minister in the town of Callander, Scotland for eight years after studying theology at the University of Edinburgh. He went on to lecture at several universities before returning to Edinburgh to take up the chair of New Testament language and literature at New College. He published a number of critical theological books before his death.

The Cities of St. Paul: Their Influence on His Life and Thought, the Cities of Eastern Asia Minor

  • Author: William Mitchell Ramsay
  • Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton
  • Publication Date: 1908
  • Pages: 435
  • Available in: M, L, XL

The life and journeys of Paul are of endless fascination. This volume discusses the cities Paul visited, and the influence they had on him. Galatia, Tarsus, Iconium, and more are examined in detail by Ramsay, providing a great backdrop to understanding the apostle Paul.

William Mitchell Ramsay (1851–1939) was born in Glasgow, Scotland. His education took place at Oxford, the University of Aberdeen, and Gottingen, and he later went on to become a professor of humanity at University of Aberdeen, as well as the first ever professor of classical archaeology at Oxford. Perhaps most well-known for his archaeological endeavors, he traveled extensively throughout Asia Minor, studying the missionary journeys of Paul and conducting archaeological research, writing numerous books on the findings and adventures of his studies, including St. Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen. His original intent in his studies was to disprove Christianity through archaeology, but through his research he realized that the Bible was accurate and converted to Christianity.

Meet Paul: An Encounter with the Apostle

  • Author: Donald Coggan
  • Publisher: SPCK
  • Publication Date: 1998
  • Pages: 124
  • Available in: M, L, XL

Coggan invites us to meet the man who has significantly influenced the development of Christianity over the last two millennia. This introduction, however, is not to the grim and pedantic figure of popular stereotype, but to a complex person, passionate, affectionate, and very human. The author reveals the crucial significance of the apostle’s favorite phrase—“in Christ”—and illuminates the many facets of his personality and teaching.

This work makes Paul alive, in Christ, and supremely relevant for both the world and the Church of today.

—David Hope, from the Foreword

Donald Coggan (1909–2000) was archbishop of York from 1961 to 1974 and of Canterbury from 1974 to 1980. He was educated at Merchant Taylor’s School and St. John’s College. He lectured in Semitic languages at the University of Manchester; was a professor of New Testament at Wycliffe College in Toronto; and the principal of London College of Divinity. He founded the Lord Coggan Memorial Fund which helped to supply Russian children with copies of the Bible. He is the author of The Voice from the Cross and The Servant-Son: Jesus Then and Now.

Reading Romans in Pompeii: Paul’s Letter at Ground Level

  • Author: Peter Oakes
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Pages: 224
  • Available in: M, L, XL

Peter Oakes relies on demographic information and data from excavations in nearby Pompeii to paint a compelling portrait of daily life in a typical insula, or apartment complex, like the ones in which Paul’s audience in Rome likely lived. Imaginatively fleshing out profiles of the circumstances of actual residents of Pompeii, Oakes then uses these profiles to invite the reader into a new way to hear Paul’s letter to the Romans as the apostle’s contemporaries might have heard it. The result of this ground-breaking study is a fuller, richer appreciation of Paul’s most important letter.

With imagination yet appropriate methodoligical caution, Peter Oakes looks at a specific archaeological site, the Insula of the Menander at Pompeii, to reveal a neighborhood of personalities typical of the time and place, and therefore typical of the possible types of persons whose interests fill the pages of Paul’s Letter to the Romans. This is the kind of integrative interpretation that is needed, contextualization of the original message in order to aid us with the new contextualization that we need to do. It is a book I wish I had written.

—Carolyn Osiek, professor of New Testament, Brite Divinity School

A fresh innovative approach to Romans. First, by examining the limited living space of ordinary people in the town of Pompeii, Oakes confirms the marginal economic circumstances of the vast majority of the people in the Roman Empire in general and in the Pauline assemblies in particular. Then, drawing on wide knowledge of ancient urban life, he explores how typical members of a model house-church—a slave, a dirt-poor stone-worker, a barmaid, and the craft-worker who hosted the house church in his workshop—would have heard the arguments and admonitions in Paul’s letter to the Romans. In an exemplary multidisciplinary investigation, Oakes restores Romans to the people.

—Richard Horsley, distinguished professor of liberal arts and the study of religion, retired, University of Massachusetts, Boston

In this groundbreaking study, Peter Oakes advances our understanding of the life setting of the original recipients of Romans and offers a plausible account of how they would have ‘heard’ Paul’s letter. All who want to develop a deeper appreciation of this letter will find this book invaluable.

—Edward Adams, senior lecturer in New Testament studies, King’s College, London

Peter Oakes is Greenwood Lecturer in New Testament at the University of Manchester and has taught Roman history at the University of Liverpool. He is editor of the Journal for the Study of the New Testament Booklist; his publications include Philippians: From People to Letter, and, as editor, Rome in the Bible and Early Church.

The Arrogance of Nations: Reading Romans in the Shadow of Empire

  • Author: Neil Elliott
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Pages: 238
  • Available in: M, L, XL

Elliott offers a fresh and surprising reinterpretation of Paul’s letter to the Romans in the context of Roman imperial ideology, bringing to the text the latest insights from classical studies, rhetorical criticism, postcolonial criticism, and people’s history.

By setting the letter alongside Roman texts (Cicero, Virgil, the Res Gestae of Augustus, Seneca, poets from the age of Nero, as well as later historians and satirists), Elliott provides a dramatic new reading of the letter as Paul’s confrontation with the arrogance of empire—and with an emerging Christianity already tempted by the seductive ideology of imperial power. The Arrogance of Nations explores such topics as:

  • Empire and the obedience of faith
  • Justice and the arrogance of nations
  • Mercy and the prerogatives of power
  • Piety and the scandal of an irreligious race
  • Virtue and the fortunes of peoples
  • Paul and the horizon of the possible
A tour de force, The Arrogance of Nations is one of the most thought-provoking books on Paul in years. Making sophisticated use of post-colonial theory while also reading with remarkable exegetical sensitivity, Elliott’s interpretation of Paul as a sharp and subtle critic of empire is cogent, compelling, and a much-needed corrective to the conventional image of the Apostle. Anyone who thinks the discussion of Paul is hackneyed and irrelevant to the issues of our day needs to read this book.

—Pamela Eisenbaum, associate professor of Biblical studies and christian origins, Iliff School of Theology

Elliott demonstrates skillfully and boldly how indispensable the Roman Empire is for interpreting Romans. He synthesizes an impressive array of historical data with wide-ranging political and ideological theory, challenges deceptions on the part of imperial propaganda (ancient and modern) that suppresses the truth, and makes eye-opening correlations with contemporary realities of empire. Even interpreters with different perspectives need to dialogue seriously with this book.

—Robert L. Brawley, professor of New Testament emeritus, McCormick Theological Seminary

This is a remarkable book. A sophisticated practitioner of rhetorical criticism, Neil Elliott also brings to Romans knowledge of Roman imperial ideology and its constraining effects on subject peoples and critical awareness of the imperial ideology and practices of the United States as well. His remarkable analysis makes Romans jump alive as never before. Under Elliott’s discerning eye, Paul’s most important letter becomes a challenge to North Americans’ privileged position as the beneficiaries of empire.

—Richard A. Horsley, distinguished professor of liberal arts and the study of religion, University of Massachusetts, Boston

Neil Elliott received his doctorate from Princeton Theological Seminary and has taught New Testament for more than 15 years, chiefly at the College of St. Catherine and United Theological Seminary of the Twin Cities. He is biblical studies editor at Fortress Press and author of The Rhetoric of Romans. An Episcopal priest, he is also a frequent contributor to The Witness, the online social-justice journal.

Galatians Re-Imagined

  • Author: Brigitte Kahl
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Pages: 272
  • Available in: M, L, XL

Brigitte Kahl brings to this insightful reading of Galatians a deep knowledge of the classical world and especially of Roman imperial ideology. The first wave of scholarship on the Roman imperial context of Paul’s letters raised important questions that only thorough treatments of individual letters can answer. Kahl sets the letter to the Galatians in the context of Roman perceptions of vanquished peoples as represented in the Great Altar at Pergamum. Beginning with a perceptive discussion of the Great Altar, Kahl describes imperial representations of Roman power as well as the characteristics officially imputed to conquered peoples, including the “savage” Galatians (Gauls).

Brigitte Kahl is a professor of New Testament at Union Theological Seminary in New York. She received her ThD and DrScTheol from Humboldt University in Berlin and is an ordained minister of the Protestant Church of Berlin-Brandenburg.

The Making of Paul: Constructions of the Apostle in Early Christianity

  • Author: Richard I. Pervo
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Pages: 400
  • Available in: M, L, XL

The influence of the apostle Paul in early Christianity goes far beyond the reach of the seven genuine letters he wrote to early assemblies. Paul was revered—and fiercely opposed—in an even larger number of letters penned in his name, and in narratives told about him and against him, that were included in our New Testament and, far more often, treasured and circulated outside it. Richard Pervo provides an illuminating and comprehensive survey of the legacy of Paul and the various ways he was remembered, honored, and vilified in the early churches. Numerous charts and maps introduce the student to the “family” of Pauline and anti-Pauline Christianities.

Richard I. Pervo is a retired professor of New Testament and christian studies at the University of Minnesota. He is the author of Rethinking the Unity of Luke and Acts, and most recently, Dating Acts: Between the Evangelists and the Apologists. He lives in Saint Paul, Minnesota.

Paul’s Understanding of the Church’s Mission

  • Author: Robert L. Plummer
  • Publisher: Paternoster
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Pages: 190
  • Available in: M, L, XL

The Apostle Paul is the most notable Christian missionary and perhaps the most influential New Testament author. The greatest theologians in the church’s history—Augustine, Calvin, Luther, Karl Barth, and others—have repeatedly turned to Paul, and the central doctrines of the church hinge on the theology found in Paul’s writings. Yet in recent decades, disputes over the historicity of Paul’s letters and the emergence of the New Perspective have led scholars to reevaluate central Pauline texts, leading to controversy, dispute, and a fractured understanding of Paul’s intent.

Did the apostle Paul expect the early Christian communities to evangelize?

This book engages in a careful study of Paul’s letters to determine if the apostle expected the communities to which he wrote to engage in missionary activity. It helpfully summarizes the discussion on this debated issue, judiciously handling contested texts, and provides a way forward in addressing this critical question.

While admitting that Paul rarely explicitly commands the communities he founded to evangelize, Plummer amasses significant incidental data to provide a convincing case that Paul did indeed expect his churches to engage in mission activity. Throughout the study, Plummer progressively builds a theological basis for the church’s mission that is both distinctively Pauline and compelling.

Plummer’s call for reliance on the Word of God and the power of the gospel is refreshing…

—Online reviewer

Robert L. Plummer is an assistant professor of New Testament interpretation at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky.

St. Paul and Justification

  • Author: Frederick Brooke Westcott
  • Publisher: Macmillan and Co.
  • Publication Date: 1913
  • Pages: 397
  • Available in: M, L, XL

How do we establish right relationship with God? And, having received God’s favor, how to we maintain right relationship with God? The Israelites in the Old Testament achieved relationship with God through God’s covenant and by keeping the law. But the New Testament Christians were faced with a far more difficult question: How do I become right with God in Jesus Christ? The doctrine of justification outlined in the books of Romans and Galatians articulates Paul’s answer to this theological dilemma, and has prompted reflection by nearly every theologian ever since.

In St. Paul and Justification, Frederick Brooke Westcott offers an exposition of Romans 1–11 and the entire book of Galatians—the key Pauline texts on the doctrine of justification. Westcott explains the seemingly-contradictory depictions of justification in Romans and Galatians, but shows how, together, these two epistles present a unified and coherent whole. He also writes at length about the influence of the Old Testament law on Paul’s doctrine of justification. Along the way, Westcott offers grammatical and literary analysis, as well as possible solutions to interpretive difficulties with regard to Greek, Latin, and English words for justice.

St. Paul and Justification is ideal for New Testament scholars, for anyone interested in the interpretive history of the Greek words for justice and righteousness, and for anyone seeking to understand one of the central doctrines of both Paul’s writings and the Christian faith.

Frederick Brooke Westcott (1857–1918) was the headmaster of Sherborne School Canon of Norwich, and a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

Between Horror and Hope: Paul’s Metaphorical Language of Death in Romans 6:1–11

  • Author: Sorin Sabou
  • Publisher: Paternoster
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Pages: 159
  • Available in: L, XL

The Apostle Paul is the most notable Christian missionary and perhaps the most influential New Testament author. The greatest theologians in the church’s history—Augustine, Calvin, Luther, Karl Barth, and others—have repeatedly turned to Paul, and the central doctrines of the church hinge on the theology found in Paul’s writings. Yet in recent decades, disputes over the historicity of Paul’s letters and the emergence of the New Perspective have led scholars to reevaluate central Pauline texts, leading to controversy, dispute, and a fractured understanding of Paul’s intent.

This book argues that Paul’s metaphorical language of death in Romans 6:1–11 conveys two aspects: horror and hope. The horror aspect is conveyed by the crucifixion language, and the hope aspect by burial language. The life of the Christian believer is understood, as relationship with sin is concerned (“death to sin”), between these two realities: horror and hope.

An important resource for scholars and preachers alike.

—Stephen Motyer

Sorin Sabou is a lecturer at Bucharest Baptist Seminary and senior pastor of the Romanian Baptist Church in Brasov, Romania.

Parallel Lives: The Relation of Paul to the Apostles in the Lucan Perspective

  • Author: Andrew C. Clark
  • Publisher: Paternoster
  • Publication Date: 1996
  • Pages: 386
  • Available in: L, XL

The Apostle Paul is the most notable Christian missionary and perhaps the most influential New Testament author. The greatest theologians in the church’s history—Augustine, Calvin, Luther, Karl Barth, and others—have repeatedly turned to Paul, and the central doctrines of the church hinge on the theology found in Paul’s writings. Yet in recent decades, disputes over the historicity of Paul’s letters and the emergence of the New Perspective have led scholars to reevaluate central Pauline texts, leading to controversy, dispute, and a fractured understanding of Paul’s intent.

The study of the Peter-Paul parallels in Acts argues that their purpose was to emphasize the themes of continuity in salvation history and the unity of the Jewish and Gentile missions. In Parallel Lives, Andrew C. Clark sheds new light on Luke’s literary techniques, partly through a comparison with Plutarch.

Crisp and methodological elucidation of the issues.

—Max Turner

Paul and Conflict Resolution: An Exegetical Study of Paul’s Apostolic Paradigm in 1 Corinthians 9

  • Author: Robinson Butarbutar
  • Publisher: Paternoster
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Pages: 300
  • Available in: L, XL

The Apostle Paul is the most notable Christian missionary and perhaps the most influential New Testament author. The greatest theologians in the church’s history—Augustine, Calvin, Luther, Karl Barth, and others—have repeatedly turned to Paul, and the central doctrines of the church hinge on the theology found in Paul’s writings. Yet in recent decades, disputes over the historicity of Paul’s letters and the emergence of the New Perspective have led scholars to reevaluate central Pauline texts, leading to controversy, dispute, and a fractured understanding of Paul’s intent.

The author sees the apostolic paradigm in 1 Corinthians 9 as part of Paul’s unified arguments in 1 Corinthians 8–10 in which he seeks to mediate in the dispute over the issue of food offered to idols. The book also sees its relevance for dispute-resolution today, taking the conflict within the author’s church as an example.

Convincing and well-researched exegesis of 1 Corinthians.

—Anthony C. Thiselton

Robinson Butarbutar has served as a minister, theological lecturer, and mission organizer in his homeland of Indonesia.

The Saving Righteousness of God

  • Author: Michael Bird
  • Publisher: Paternoster
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Pages: 250
  • Available in: L, XL

The Apostle Paul is the most notable Christian missionary and perhaps the most influential New Testament author. The greatest theologians in the church’s history—Augustine, Calvin, Luther, Karl Barth, and others—have repeatedly turned to Paul, and the central doctrines of the church hinge on the theology found in Paul’s writings. Yet in recent decades, disputes over the historicity of Paul’s letters and the emergence of the New Perspective have led scholars to reevaluate central Pauline texts, leading to controversy, dispute, and a fractured understanding of Paul’s intent.

This book presents a series of studies on contentious aspects of Paul’s doctrine of justification including the meaning of righteousness, the question of imputation, the role of resurrection in justification, an evaluation of the New Perspective, the soteriological and ecclesiological significance of justification, justification by faith with judgment according to works, and debates over the orthodoxy of N. T. Wright. The burden of the volume is to demonstrate that both Reformed and new readings of Paul are indispensable to attaining a full understanding of Paul’s soteriology.

Michael Bird’s treatment is a calm, judicious and irenic voice which ought to be heard widely.

—James D. G. Dunn

Michael F. Bird is a New Testament lecturer at Highland Theological College in Dingwall, Scotland.

Secular and Christian Leadership in Corinth: A Socio-Historical and Exegetical Study of 1 Corinthians 1–6

  • Author: Andrew D. Clarke
  • Publisher: Paternoster
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Pages: 188
  • Available in: L, XL

The Apostle Paul is the most notable Christian missionary and perhaps the most influential New Testament author. The greatest theologians in the church’s history—Augustine, Calvin, Luther, Karl Barth, and others—have repeatedly turned to Paul, and the central doctrines of the church hinge on the theology found in Paul’s writings. Yet in recent decades, disputes over the historicity of Paul’s letters and the emergence of the New Perspective have led scholars to reevaluate central Pauline texts, leading to controversy, dispute, and a fractured understanding of Paul’s intent.

This volume is an investigation into the leadership structures and dynamics of first-century Roman Corinth. These are compared with the practice of leadership in the Corinthian Christian community which are reflected in 1 Corinthians 1–6, and contrasted with Paul’s own principles of Christian leadership.

Andrew D. Clarke is a senior lecturer in New Testament in the Department of Divinity with Religious Studies at University of Aberdeen in Scotland, UK.

St. Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen

  • Author: William Mitchell Ramsay
  • Publisher: Logos Research Systems, Inc.
  • Publication Date: 1896
  • Pages: 390
  • Available in: L, XL

This classic commentary on the book of Acts was written by a scholar who set out to disprove Luke’s authorship and became one of the greatest advocates for the authenticity and accuracy of Luke’s account.

Social-Science Commentary on the Letters of Paul

  • Authors: Bruce J. Malina and John J. Pilch
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Pages: 432
  • Available in: L, XL

This latest addition to the Fortress Social-Science Commentaries on New Testament writings illuminates the values, perceptions, and social codes of the Mediterranean culture that shaped Paul and his interactions—both harmonious and conflicted—with others. Malina and Pilch add new dimensions to our understanding of the apostle as a social change agent, his coworkers as innovators, and his gospel as an assertion of the honor of the God of Israel.

If you are tired of reading the same ‘new’ book on Paul over and over, this is the place to go next. In addition to traditional material on rhetoric and background, this social-scientific commentary brings to the fore necessary, significant and enlightening ways of understanding the social role of Paul and his social dynamics with the churches he founded. In this it is unique. . . The Reading Scenarios are themselves worth the price of this book.

—Jerome Neyrey, University of Notre Dame

This is not the typical introspective, individualistic Paul of Western theology. Rather Malina and Pilch reveal Paul as a thoroughgoing Mediterranean person, functioning as a change agent among Israelites living in minority communities around the Greco-Roman world. Pauline theology will never look the same again.

—Richard L. Rohrbaugh, Lewis and Clark College

Bruce J. Malina is a professor of New Testament at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. He is the author of The Social Gospel of Jesus, and with Richard Rohrbaugh, Social-Science Commentary on the Synoptic Gospels, and Social-Science Commentary on the Gospel of John, all from Fortress Press.

John J. Pilch teaches biblical literature in the Theology Department of Georgetown University, and is currently a visiting professor at the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum in Hong Kong, and at the University of Pretoria in South Africa. He is the author of Healing in the New Testament.

Christ’s Body in Corinth: The Politics of a Metaphor

  • Author: Yung Suk Kim
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Pages: 152
  • Available in: L, XL

Yung Suk Kim takes up the language of “body” that infuses 1 Corinthians, Paul’s most complicated letter, and the letter that provides us the most information, and poses the sharpest questions, about social realities in the early church. Kim argues against the view that in speaking of the church as Christ’s body Paul seeks to emphasize unity and the social boundary. Against the conventional rhetoric of the “body politic” in Greco-Roman philosophy, Kim argues that Paul seeks rather to nourish the vitality of a diverse community and to criticize the ideology of a powerful in-group in Corinth, a message of particular importance for contemporary global Christianity.

A tour de force, The Arrogance of Nations is one of the most thought-provoking books on Paul in years. Making sophisticated use of post-colonial theory while also reading with remarkable exegetical sensitivity, Elliott’s interpretation of Paul as a sharp and subtle critic of empire is cogent, compelling, and a much-needed corrective to the conventional image of the Apostle. Anyone who thinks the discussion of Paul is hackneyed and irrelevant to the issues of our day needs to read this book.

—Pamela Eisenbaum, associate professor of Biblical studies and Christian origins, Iliff School of Theology

I highly recommend this work to all who take seriously Paul’s metaphor of ‘the body of Christ.’ Kim interprets the metaphor as an alternative vision of vital reconciling community, over against conceptions that emphasize boundary markers to establish social groups. What is at stake in the interpretation of 1 Corinthians, he argues, is not just the ways first-century Christians constructed and lived out social unity but the consequences of our choices for the way we live out our own responsibilities today.

—David Odell-Scott, professor of philosophy, Kent State University

Yung Suk Kim is an assistant professor of New Testament and early Christianity at Samuel DeWitt Proctor School of Theology, Virginia Union University, in Richmond, Virginia.

Apostle to the Conquered: Reimagining Paul’s Mission

  • Author: Davina C. Lopez
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Pages: 272
  • Available in: L, XL

Davina C. Lopez combines attention to Roman visual and literary representations of conquered nations with a gender-critical “re-imagination” of Paul’s apostleship. The result is a new and more critical perspective on the systematic violence of the Roman Empire, and a renewed understanding of “Paul’s politics of the new creation.”

Davina Lopez has dramatically reframed two enduring themes of Pauline scholarship in this book. Paul’s ‘gentiles’ gain a crucial new theo-political meaning. Gender in Paul’s thought obtains stunning new vistas as well, which reorder the entire debate. With striking visuals from the ancient world and incisive analysis of texts, Lopez joins Brigitte Kahl in recasting Pauline scholarship for the future.

—Hal Taussig, visiting professor of New Testament, Union Theological Seminary in New York

Davina C. Lopez is an assistant professor of religious studies at Eckerd College in St. Petersburg, Florida, and serves on the American Academy of Religion’s Board of Directors.

Paul on the Cross

  • Author: David Brondos
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Pages: 256
  • Available in: L, XL

Even as theologians have become more critical of classic theories of atonement, biblical scholars have continued to rely upon such theories as a basis for interpreting Paul’s teaching regarding salvation and the cross. In this vital volume, Brondos looks to the recent advances in New Testament scholarship to argue for an alternative understanding of Paul’s doctrine of salvation and the cross.

Paul, says Brondos, understood Jesus’ death primarily as the consequence of his mission: to serve as God’s instrument to bring about the long-awaited redemption of Israel, in which Gentiles throughout the world would also be included. For Paul, Jesus’ death is salvific not because it satisfies some necessary condition for human salvation, as most doctrines of the atonement have traditionally maintained, nor because it effects some change in the situation of human beings or the world in general. Rather, Jesus’ God responded to Jesus’ faithfulness unto death by raising him, thereby ensuring that all the divine promises of salvation would be fulfilled through him.

Jesus’ death forms part of an overarching story culminating in the redemption of Israel and the world. It is this story, and in particular what preceded and followed Jesus’ death on the cross, that makes that death redemptive for Paul.

Brondos offers a fresh rereading of the Gospels, Acts, and the Pauline letters that will spur others to reread and rethink these texts. His argument raises significant challenges to those who caricature Paul as the inventor of Christianity, as will as to those who follow the ‘New Perspective on Paul.’ This book will serve as a valuable stimulus for exegetical and theological clarification regarding the atonement, the story of redemption, and the Christian view of time.

—Mark Reasoner, associate professor of Biblical studies, Bethel University; author of Romans in Full Circle: A History of Interpretation

David Brondos is a professor of theology at the Theological Community of Mexico, an ecumenical consortium of seminaries in Mexico City, where he teaches systematic theology and Biblical studies.

Social-Science Commentary on the Book of Acts

  • Authors: Bruce J. Malina and John J. Pilch
  • Publisher: Fortress Press
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Pages: 254
  • Available in: L, XL

Like earlier volumes in the Social Science Commentary series, this volume situates Acts squarely in the cultural matrix of the first century Mediterranean world, elaborating its codes of patron and client, mediatorship, honor and shame, healing and sickening, wizardry and witchcraft accusations, and the understanding of the Spirit of God as well as deities and demons as personal causes of significant events.

Bruce J. Malina is a professor of New Testament at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. He has written many books, including The Social World of Jesus and the Gospels, and The Social Gospel of Jesus. He is also co-author of Social-Science Commentary on the Gospel of John and Social Science Commentary on the Book of Revelation. He is co-editor of The Social Setting of Jesus and the Gospels.

John J. Pilch is a professor of Biblical studies at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. His works include Healing in the New Testament and Social-Science Commentary on the Book of Revelation (with Bruce J. Malina).

Contours of Pauline Theology: A Radical New Survey of the Influences on Paul’s Biblical Writings

  • Author: Tom Holland
  • Publisher: Christian Focus Publications
  • Publication Date: 2004
  • Pages: 392
  • Available in: L, XL

The Apostle Paul is a controversial church figure. Many theologians accuse Paul of starting a new religion—of hi-jacking early Christianity in a different direction. Is this a fair charge? Tom Holland points us to a neglected fact, that the Jews in the first century A.D. would view concepts of salvation through the exodus of Israel from Egypt to the promised land. Until now, a real elephant in the center of the hermeneutical room. Such a viewpoint opens up new understanding on Pauline studies—it is true of this book that it will change your view of the New Testament and deserves to radically alter New Testament studies in Universities, Theological Colleges, and Seminaries around the world.

In constant critical engagement . . . Holland maps out new ways of understanding Paul and offers new insights into a range of absolutely vital issues from justification to Christology, and new insights into Pauline texts from Romans to Colossians. Challenging, unsettling and infuriating Dr. Holland’s tour de force cannot be ignored.

—Dr. Peter Head, Cambridge University

It is refreshing to read something radically new in such a popular area as Pauline studies. This book should provide a timely and fruitful alternative to some of the theological emphases that have guided the church for too long.

—Dr. William S. Campbell, University of Wales, Lampeter

Holland’s book will greatly help us to a better understanding of Paul and will hopefully trigger much fruitful scholarly debate.

—Dr. Christian Stettler, Cambridge University

Tom Holland is a professor of New Testament and Hermeneutics at the Wales Evangelical School of Theology.

Paul and His Letters

  • Author: John B. Polhill
  • Publisher: Broadman & Holman
  • Publication Date: 1999
  • Pages: 485
  • Available in: L, XL

Except for Christ himself, no figure has been more influential in the history of Christianity than the apostle Paul. And yet his remarkable life remains shrouded in mystery. Paul & His Letters scrapes away the myths about this great man and uncovers the truth of his life and thought.

Dr. Polhill’s well-written introduction to Paul and his letters reflects his conservative, evangelical perspective and his many years of scholarship. One of the strengths of this book is his detail in defining terms, people and places relating to Paul in Acts and his epistles.

Polhill also uses reliable traditions from non-canonical sources, weaving together the remarkable story of Paul’s transformation from persecutor to persecuted, following Paul from his early years in Tarsus and Jerusalem to his imprisonment and eventual martyrdom. This detailed, comprehensive portrait of Paul will serve as an indispensable resource for students, teachers, pastors and all Christians who seek to know this enigmatic man of God.

John B. Polhill is the author of the widely acclaimed volume on Acts in the New American Commentary series. He has also contributed to numerous journals, reference works, and denominational publications. He is a member of the Society of Biblical Literature and the National Association of Baptist Professors of Religion. He is a frequent speaker at Bible conferences in the United States and abroad. A devoted churchman, he has served as pastor of congregations in Virginia, Kentucky, and Massachusetts.

The Pauline Writings

  • Editors: Stanley E. Porter and Craig A. Evans
  • Publisher: Sheffield
  • Publication Date: 1995
  • Pages: 314
  • Available in: XL

A collection of essays from leading academics in the field of Pauline studies culled from the Journal for the Study of the New Testament. This volume is broken down into four sections: “Paul the Apostle, Pauline Interpretation of Sacred Tradition,” “Pauline Theology,” and “Pauline Letter-Form and Rhetoric.” Contributors include D. Lüthermann (“Paul and the Pharisaic Tradition”), J. W. Aageson (“Typology, Correspondence, and the Application of Scripture in Romans 9-11”), K. Snodgrass (“Spheres of Influence: A Possible Solution to the Problem of Paul and the Law”) amongst many others.

Craig A. Evans received his PhD from Claremont. He is Payzant Distinguished Professor of New Testament at Acadia Divinity College Wolfville in Nova Scotia, Canada.

Stanley E. Porter is the principal, dean, and professor of New Testament at McMaster Divinity College in Canada.

St. Paul and the Mystery Religions

  • Author: Harry Angus Alexander Kennedy
  • Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton
  • Publication Date: 1913
  • Pages: 344
  • Available in: XL

An invaluable book of exceptional history, H. A. A. Kennedy identifies and examines the relationship of Pauline theology and the religious cults that co-existed in the Roman Empire. A revealing exploration of the religious atmosphere Paul found himself proclaiming the Gospel in, it catalogs the various religious communities Paul visited and deciphers the beliefs and customs practiced therein.

Harry Angus Alexander Kennedy (1866–1934) was born in Dornoch, Sutherland. He was a minister in the town of Callander, Scotland for eight years after studying theology at the University of Edinburgh. He went on to lecture at several universities before returning to Edinburgh to take up the chair of New Testament language and literature at New College. He published a number of critical theological books before his death.

St. Paul’s Fight for Galatia

  • Author: Charles H. Watkins
  • Publisher: James Clarke & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1914
  • Pages: 312
  • Available in: XL

First published in German as his thesis for his doctorate of theology at the University of Heidelberg, Charles H. Watkins’ St. Paul’s Fight for Galatia focuses mainly on the psychological aspect of Paul’s epistle, and posits the idea that Paul was a “controversialist,” but only because of the sense of urgency with which he was writing. This is an important contribution to the study of Galatians and of the character and life of Paul.

The book is an original, daring, and very thorough examination of those sections of the Epistle to the Galatians that bear upon the controversy raised by the Judaizers who disturbed and misled the Apostle Paul’s converts in Galatia. With great skill and scholarship, Dr. Watkins sets himself to deduce from the Epistle what was the actual position taken by the Judaizers, and what were the charges they brought to undermine St. Paul’s authority. As a commentary on Galatians, the book will be found unusually illuminating and suggestive.

The American Missionary

The book is original and of importance; on the psychological side especially it is a real contribution to the right understanding of the Epistle.

Review of Theology and Philosophy

Charles H. Watkins received his doctorate of theology from the University of Heidelberg, where he studied under Johannes Weiss and Anton Fridrichsen.

The Teaching of Paul in Terms of the Present Day

  • Author: William Mitchell Ramsay
  • Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton
  • Publication Date: 1914
  • Pages: 484
  • Available in: XL

This series of lectures was originally delivered in November, 1910, to students at New York University. Providing a detailed account of Paul’s life, education, and journeys, this volume also analyzes his thought process, literary style, and the doctrine proclaimed in his New Testament epistles. The chronology of his letters is examined, as is the historical accuracy, and the resource ends with several detailed indexes of words and scriptural references found within.

William Mitchell Ramsay (1851–1939) was born in Glasgow, Scotland. His education took place at Oxford, the University of Aberdeen, and Gottingen, and he later went on to become a professor of humanity at University of Aberdeen, as well as the first ever Professor of classical archaeology at Oxford. Perhaps most well-known for his archaeological endeavors, he traveled extensively throughout Asia Minor, studying the missionary journeys of Paul and conducting archaeological research, writing numerous books on the findings and adventures of his studies, including St. Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen. His original intent in his studies was to disprove Christianity through archaeology, but through his research he realized that the Bible was accurate and converted to Christianity.

The Social Ethos of the Corinthian Correspondence

  • Author: David G. Horrell
  • Publisher: T & T Clark
  • Publication Date: 1996
  • Pages: 390
  • Available in: XL

In The Social Ethos, David Horrell offers an exemplary study of how sociological perspectives can be used in New Testament studies. The focus of these studies is the Corinthian letters written by Paul and Clement’s letter written from Rome to Corinth near the end of the first century. These letters provide a rich example of the social ethos of early Christian teaching and its development. It lifts the roof off the Corinthian church, allowing an assessment of how Pauline Christianity shaped relationships within the Christian community and how those relationships changed over time, as expressed in Clement’s letter.

David G. Horrell is a lecturer in New Testament studies in the Department of Theology at University of Exeter. He is the author of Solidarity and Difference: A Contemporary Reading of Paul’s Ethics.

Renewal through Suffering: A Study of 2 Corinthians

  • Author: A. E. Harvey
  • Publisher: T & T Clark
  • Publication Date: 1996
  • Pages: 153
  • Available in: XL

Paul’s opening remarks in his second letter to the Corinthian church make reference to certain troubles or problems he faced (problems which could possibly lead to imminent death from either an illness or persecution). Harvey uses these references as a springboard to understanding the profound but difficult language found in this epistle. He begins by exploring the social, economic and religious consequences of illness or disability in antiquity. Paul uses his malady as an opportunity to present a new understanding of suffering for the first-century Christian. The remainder of Harvey’s book acts as a running commentary on this biographical approach to understanding 2 Corinthians.

A. E. Harvey was a lecturer in theology at the University of Oxford and a former Canon of Westminster. He is the author of Companion to the New Testament.

Constructing the World: A Study in Paul’s Cosmological Language

  • Author: Edward Adams
  • Publisher: T & T Clark
  • Publication Date: 2000
  • Pages: 300
  • Available in: XL

Dr. Adams focuses, in this ground-breaking study, on Paul’s understanding and use of the cosmological concepts ‘world’ and ‘creation’. He confronts this study by using current disciplines, such as critical linguistics, to understand the differing perspectives on the world found in 1 Corinthians and Romans by examining Paul’s historical and social context.

Edward Adams is a lecturer in New Testament at King’s College, University of London. He has taught widely in the field of New Testament and early Christianity and currently teaches undergraduate courses on Paul in Context, New Testament eschatology and Colossians in Greek. At MA level, he co-ordinates and is the principal teacher for the foundational course of the MA in Biblical Studies. He is the author of Christianity at CorinthThe Stars will Fall from the Heaven.

Paul, Poverty and Survival

  • Author: Justin J. Meggitt
  • Publisher: T & T Clark
  • Publication Date: 1998
  • Pages: 274
  • Available in: XL

Meggitt examines the economic and social life of Pauline churches. His work presents to us the lives and minds of the earliest Christians and contributes to our understanding of the origins of Christianity. He further explores the nature of the Roman economy and the lives of those living in the first-century Mediterranean world. Some of the aspects he focuses on are: employment, nutrition, clothing and housing. In disclosing the Pauline church’s strategies for survival, Meggitt is able to draw on many background sources for the first time in this kind of study.

Justin J. Meggitt has been a British Academy Research Fellow in the Faculty of Divinity, and Fellow Commoner of Jesus College, University of Cambridge. He joined the Institute of Continuing Education at Cambridge in 2004. He is most interested in early Christianity in its social context. He is the author of the chapter Sources: Use, Abuse and Neglect in Christianity at Corinth: The Scholarly Quest for the Corinthian Church.

St. Paul: A Study in Social and Religious History

  • Author: Adolf Deissmann
  • Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton
  • Publication Date: 1912
  • Pages: 351
  • Available in: XL

In this significant account of the life and teaching of St. Paul, Deissmann set the standard for Pauline studies in the early 20th century. Separating assumptions from facts on Paul, he focuses on historical context and New Testament studies to reveal an accurate and in-depth study. Deissmann examines several different aspects of Paul’s character, such as his lineage, conversion, apostleship, and historical context. Included are extensive indexes, preface, a detailed table of contents, and a map of the ancient world. Deissman’s conversational yet highly academic style makes St. Paul: A Study in Social and Religious History the perfect resource for students and pastors.

Adolf Deissmann (1866–1937) was born in Germany. A prominent German Biblical scholar, he was an expert in Hellenistic Greek, proving that the New Testament was based on the common language of the Hellenistic world.

Paul the Missionary

  • Author: Louis Berkhof
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1915
  • Pages: 82
  • Available in: XL

Louis Berkhof calls Paul “a greater reformer with broader view and wider sympathies than Luther,” “a thinker more acute than Calvin,” and “an earnest lover of souls surpassing Whitefield.” A large portion of the New Testament contains his writings and is devoted to telling the story of his life and influence. In his series of addresses to a missions society in Flagstaff, Arizona in 1915—here reprinted in Paul the Missionary—Berkhof implored his listeners to look to his example. The first three lectures are biographical, and the final lecture contains an exposition on grace based on Paul’s writings.

Louis Berkhof (1873–1957) was born in the Netherlands, and immigrated with his family to West Michigan in 1882. In 1893, he began attending the Theological School of the Christian Reformed Church (now Calvin Theological Seminary), where he studied under Hendericus Beuker and was influenced by the writings of Abraham Kuyper and Herman Bavinck. Berkhof graduated from Calvin Theological Seminary in 1900 and became the pastor of First Christian Reformed Church in Allendale, Michigan. He attended Princeton Theological Seminary from 1902 to 1904, where he studied under B.B. Warfield and Geerhardus Vos. H. Henry Meeter, a friend of Berkhof, remarked that “Berkhof frequently said that he owed more to Vos than anyone else for his insights into Reformed theology” (Reformed Theology in America, 156).

Berkfhof returned to Michigan in 1904 and became pastor of Oakdale Park Christian Reformed Church in Grand Rapids. In 1906, he was appointed professor of exegetical theology at Calvin Theological Seminary, and in 1926, became professor of dogmatic theology. He also delivered the Stone Lectures at Princeton in 1921. On September 9, 1931, Berkhof became president of Calvin Theological Seminary, where he served until his retirement in 1944. During his lifetime, he wrote prolifically, including numerous volumes on theology, social issues, politics, education, and missions. In addition to his books, he also published countless articles in Reformed periodicals, such as The Banner, De Wachter, and the Calvin Forum. He also served as the first president of the Reformed Ecumenical Synod in 1946.

St. Paul and the Roman Law, and Other Studies on the Origin of the Form of Doctrine

  • Author: William Edmund Ball
  • Publisher: T&T Clark
  • Publication Date: 1901
  • Pages: 218
  • Available in: XL

Published in 1901, W. E. Ball’s St. Paul and the Roman Law and Other Studies on the Origin of the Form of Doctrine is a fascinating analysis of Roman law, and how expanded comprehension of its language and formation will lead to a deeper New Testament exegesis.

In clear, bold prose, Ball establishes the importance of Paul’s Roman citizenship, and how without it, Christianity may not have extended far beyond Palestine. With Ball’s extensive historical knowledge and profound understanding of Roman law, this exhilarating approach to the New Testament is essential reading for biblical scholars and connoisseurs of history alike.

Paul as Apostle to the Gentiles: His Apostolic Self-Awareness and Its Influence on the Soteriological Arguments in Romans

  • Author: Daniel Chae
  • Publisher: Paternoster
  • Publication Date: 1997
  • Pages: 378
  • Available in: XL

The Apostle Paul is the most notable Christian missionary and perhaps the most influential New Testament author. The greatest theologians in the church’s history—Augustine, Calvin, Luther, Karl Barth, and others—have repeatedly turned to Paul, and the central doctrines of the church hinge on the theology found in Paul’s writings. Yet in recent decades, disputes over the historicity of Paul’s letters and the emergence of the New Perspective have led scholars to reevaluate central Pauline texts, leading to controversy, dispute, and a fractured understanding of Paul’s intent.

The author competently demonstrates that the equality of Jew and Gentile is the main subject matter of Paul’s soteriological argument in his letter to the Romans. Chae argues that it is Paul’s self-awareness of being an apostle to the Gentiles that has significantly influenced the shape, content and structure of his inclusive argument. Thus he offers an important alternative to the prevailing post-Holocaust interpretation of Romans and of Paul.

Daniel Chae received his PhD from London School of Theology, where he was also Tutor and Research Fellow. He became the founding pastor of Eastbury Church, where he served until 2004. Since then, he has served as Director of MV DOULOS, a missionary community ship.

Paul, Moses, and the History of Israel: The Letter/Spirit Contrast and the Argument from Scripture in 2 Corinthians 3

  • Author: Scott Hafemann
  • Publisher: Paternoster
  • Publication Date: 1996
  • Pages: 497
  • Available in: XL

The Apostle Paul is the most notable Christian missionary and perhaps the most influential New Testament author. The greatest theologians in the church’s history—Augustine, Calvin, Luther, Karl Barth, and others—have repeatedly turned to Paul, and the central doctrines of the church hinge on the theology found in Paul’s writings. Yet in recent decades, disputes over the historicity of Paul’s letters and the emergence of the New Perspective have led scholars to reevaluate central Pauline texts, leading to controversy, dispute, and a fractured understanding of Paul’s intent.

Paul, Moses, and the History of Israel provides an exegetical study of the call of Moses, the second giving of the Law, the new covenant, Paul’s self-understanding as an apostle, and the prophetic understanding of the history of Israel. Hafemann’s work demonstrates Paul’s contextual use of the Old Testament and the essential unity of the old and new covenants in view of the distinctive ministries of Moses and Paul.

Scott Hafemann has done an excellent job in presenting a correct understanding of the Spirit/letter contrast in 2 Corinthians 3. The conclusion that he reaches has implications for a whole understanding of the Old Testament and its relation to the New Testament.

—Online reviewer

Scott J. Hafemann (ThD, Tübingen) is the Mary F. Rockefeller Distinguished Professor of New Testament at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in South Hamilton, Massachusetts. Prior to joining the faculty of Gordon-Conwell, he served from 1995 to 2004 as the Gerald F. Hawthorne Professor of New Testament Greek and Exegesis at Wheaton College and Graduate School in Wheaton, Illinois. His books include Suffering and the Ministry of the Spirit, available as part of this collection; an NIV Application Commentary on 2 Corinthians; and The God of Promise and the Life of Faith: Understanding the Heart of the Bible. He is also the editor of Biblical Theology: Retrospect and Prospect, available as part of the IVP Evangelical Theology Collection.

Suffering and Ministry in the Spirit: Paul’s Defense of his Ministry in 2 Corinthians 2:14–3:3

  • Author: Scott Hafemann
  • Publisher: Paternoster
  • Publication Date: 2000
  • Pages: 284
  • Available in: XL

The Apostle Paul is the most notable Christian missionary and perhaps the most influential New Testament author. The greatest theologians in the church’s history—Augustine, Calvin, Luther, Karl Barth, and others—have repeatedly turned to Paul, and the central doctrines of the church hinge on the theology found in Paul’s writings. Yet in recent decades, disputes over the historicity of Paul’s letters and the emergence of the New Perspective have led scholars to reevaluate central Pauline texts, leading to controversy, dispute, and a fractured understanding of Paul’s intent.

Shedding new light on the way Paul defended his apostleship, the author of this resource offers a careful, detailed study of 2 Corinthians 2:14–3:3 linked with other key passages throughout 1 and 2 Corinthians. Demonstrating the unity and coherence of Paul’s argument in this passage, the author shows that Paul’s suffering served as the vehicle for revealing God’s power and glory through the Spirit.

A book of persuasive power.

—Jerome Murphy O’Connor

Scott J. Hafemann (ThD, Tübingen) is the Mary F. Rockefeller Distinguished Professor of New Testament at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in South Hamilton, Massachusetts. Prior to joining the faculty of Gordon-Conwell, he served from 1995 to 2004 as the Gerald F. Hawthorne Professor of New Testament Greek and Exegesis at Wheaton College and Graduate School in Wheaton, Illinois. His books include an NIV Application Commentary on 2 Corinthians and The God of Promise and the Life of Faith: Understanding the Heart of the Bible. He is also the editor of Biblical Theology: Retrospect and Prospect, available as part of the IVP Evangelical Theology Collection.

Saint Paul as Spiritual Director: An Analysis of the Imitation of Paul with Implications and Applications to the Practice of Spiritual Direction

  • Author: Victor Copan
  • Publisher: Paternoster
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Pages: 350
  • Available in: XL

The Apostle Paul is the most notable Christian missionary and perhaps the most influential New Testament author. The greatest theologians in the church’s history—Augustine, Calvin, Luther, Karl Barth, and others—have repeatedly turned to Paul, and the central doctrines of the church hinge on the theology found in Paul’s writings. Yet in recent decades, disputes over the historicity of Paul’s letters and the emergence of the New Perspective have led scholars to reevaluate central Pauline texts, leading to controversy, dispute, and a fractured understanding of Paul’s intent.

In recent years much has been written on spiritual direction. However, confusion and at times outright contradiction exists between the aims and methodologies of various models of Christian spiritual direction. In order to develop solid criteria for evaluating and critiquing these models it is necessary to root the practice of spiritual direction in the biblical record. The intention of this study is to provide such biblical moorings by examining the Apostle Paul as a case study in his function as a spiritual director—with respect to his aims and praxis of spirituality forming the members of the congregations he founded.

Victor Copan is an associate professor of ministry at Palm Beach Atlantic University in Florida.

Product Details

  • Title: Pauline Studies
  • Volumes: 46