Products>Mobile Ed: AP113 Objections to the Gospels (6 hour course - audio)

Mobile Ed: AP113 Objections to the Gospels (6 hour course - audio)


In Objections to the Gospels, Dr. Michael R. Licona explores the major objections to the reliability of the Gospels posed by modern critics. This audio discussion provides you with strong historical background to the text and authorship of the Gospels and a greater appreciation for these works. He covers a while variety of issues from the existence and importance of eyewitness testimony for the gospels, as well as questions of dating, miracles, and variations among the synoptic gospels and John.

This is the audio only version of AP113 Objections to the Gospels. To purchase the full course, click here.

Course Outline


  • Introducing the Speaker and the Course

Unit 1: Overcoming Objections to the Gospels

  • Introduction
  • The Basis of the Biblical Text
  • Interacting with the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts
  • The Problem of Variants
  • Investigating Textual Differences in 1 John 1:4
  • The Purpose of Translations
  • Testing the Validity of the Bible: Archaeological and Historical Proof
  • Testing the Validity of the Bible: External and Internal Sources
  • Confirming Scripture: Undesigned Coincidences & Canonization
  • The Criteria and the Debate of Canonicity
  • Comparing Early Canonical Lists

Unit 2: The Authorship of the Gospels

  • The Question of Authorship, Beginning with Mark
  • Common Objections to Mark’s Authorship
  • Examining the Authorship of Luke
  • Finding the “We” Sections in Acts
  • Examining the Authorship of John
  • Further Examination of the Authorship of John
  • Examining the Authorship of Matthew
  • The Comparison and Relevance of Authorship in Context

Unit 3: Dating the Gospels

  • Dating the Gospel of Mark
  • Dating the Gospel of Matthew and Luke
  • Dating the Gospel of John
  • Handling the Gap

Unit 4: Eyewitness Accounts Preserved through Oral Tradition

  • Eyewitness Testimony
  • Protective Anonymity
  • The Formality of the Oral Tradition
  • The Integrity of the Oral Tradition

Unit 5: Considering Miracles

  • Miracles through a Scientific Lens
  • Hume on Miracles
  • Probability, History, and Miracles: A Look at Bayes’ Theorem
  • Evidence of Miracles
  • Evidence of a Supernatural Realm
  • Parallels: Examining Pagan Influence and Causal Connections
  • Parallels: Examining Desire, Myth, and Evidence
  • Considering Bias

Unit 6: Redaction with a Purpose

  • The Truth about Contradictions
  • Spotting Discrepancies in the Gospels
  • The Influence of Genre
  • The Purpose of Redaction: Clarifying the Text
  • Handling Differences in Communication Styles
  • The Teaching and Application of Ancient Writing Techniques
  • Examples of Redaction in the Gospels
  • Introducing Secular Examples of Redaction in Ancient Biographies
  • Examples of the Accepted Practice of Transferal
  • Examples of the Accepted Practice of Literary Spotlighting
  • Examples of the Accepted Practice of Simplification
  • Remembering Genre


  • Concluding the Course

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Michael R. Licona

Dr. Mike Licona is associate professor of theology at Houston Baptist University. He holds a PhD in New Testament studies from the University of Pretoria, which he earned with distinction and the highest mark.

Dr. Licona was interviewed for Lee Strobel’s book The Case for the Real Jesus and he appeared in Strobel’s video The Case for Christ. He is the author of numerous books, including The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach, Paul Meets Muhammad: A Christian-Muslim Debate on the Resurrection, co-author of the award-winning book The Case for the Resurrection of Jesus, and co-editor of Evidence for God: 50 Arguments for Faith from the Bible, History, Philosophy, and Science. His next book will concern ancient compositional devices resulting in discrepancies in the Gospels and Plutarch’s Lives. Dr. Licona is a member of the Society of Biblical Literature, the Institute for Biblical Research, the Evangelical Theological Society, and the Evangelical Philosophical Society. He has spoken on more than 70 university campuses and has appeared on dozens of radio and television programs.