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New Testament authors expressed the essence of Christianity in one word. It is the Greek word koinonia usually translated as “fellowship.” St. Paul reduces the whole Christian vocation to a koinonia when he writes “God is faithful, by whom ye were called unto the fellowship (koinonia) of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord” (1 Cor. 1:9). St. Luke uses the same term to depict the life of the first Christians: “And they continued stedfastly in the apostles’ doctrine and fellowship (koinonia), and in breaking of bread, and in prayers” (Acts 2:42). 1 John goes a step further and affirms “That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you, that ye also may have fellowship (koinonia) with us: and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ” (1 John 1:3). Fellowship with Christ, leading to a fellowship with the Father, and fellowship with one another in Christ: there you have Christianity in one word.

Interesting studies on the term koinonia have appeared from the 1930’s onward. But almost all the works on koinonia which have been encountered are concerned with the discussion of the philological aspects of the word koinonia. Using these works as a basis, the author attempts in this study to find the theological implications of the NT koinonia. The depth and beauty of the NT koinonia could serve as guidelines to a new Ecclesiology, resulting from an enriched Christology.