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The Greek text, established by an international and interconfessional committee, is identical with that of the 26th and 27th edition of Novum Testamentum Graece by Nestle-Aland except for some minor punctuation and paragraphing differences. The apparatus includes only those textual variants which involve significant differences in meaning for translators. For each variant, extensive manuscript evidence is cited, and an indication is given of the relative degree of certainty for each textual decision. A separate apparatus provides information on major differences in punctuation among modern Bible translations. Introduction and section headings are in English.

Author Bios

Kurt Aland

Kurt Aland (28 March 1915 – 13 April 1994) was a German Theologian and Professor of New Testament Research and Church History. He founded the Institut für neutestamentliche Textforschung (Institute for New Testament Textual Research) in Münster and served as its first director for many years (1959–83). He was one of the principal editors of Novum Testamentum Graece for the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft and the The Greek New Testament for the United Bible Societies.

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Carlo Maria Martini

Carlo Maria Martini, SJ (born 15 February 1927) is an Italian Cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was Archbishop of Milan from 1980 to 2002, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1983.

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Bruce M. Metzger

Bruce M. Metzger

Bruce M. Metzger (1914–2007) was a New Testament scholar and professor. He earned several degrees from Princeton Theological Seminary and later taught at Princeton for 46 years, retiring as professor of New Testament language and literature emeritus. In 1939, Metzger was ordained in the Presbyterian Church.

An expert in ancient biblical manuscripts, he participated in three major Bible translation projects, including the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament. He was on the board of the NRSV translation committee, the American Bible Society, and the United Bible Societies. Metzger wrote several books, including Lexical Aids for Students of New Testament Greek, The Making of the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible, and The Bible in Translation: Ancient and English Versions.

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Barbara Aland

Barbara Aland, née Ehlers is a German theologian and was a Professor of New Testament Research and Church History at Westphalian Wilhelms-University of Münster until 2002.

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