Examine how the sacred Scriptures progressed through history to the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. Scholars such as Francis Crawford Burkitt and Isaac Taylor shed light on the journey of the Scriptures and how they arrived in modern times. Other scholars trace parallels between the Old and New Testaments and investigate issues of textual criticism. These eight volumes analyze original Greek texts, highlight links created by New Testament quotations of the Old Testament, and offer thoughts on the role of textual criticism in the study of the Bible.
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Presents the historical journey of the biblical texts
Illuminates issues in textual criticism and offers guidelines for its study
Draws intertextual analysis of the Old and New Testaments
Francis Crawford Burkitt believed that the canonical Gospels were an extraordinary historical resource for the first 150 years of Christianity—as the character and belief of the early church was formed—but were often diminished by modern historical criticism. In 1906, Burkitt offered 10 lectures explaining their importance in this regard, and demonstrating how the traditionally Catholic view of history reflected the actual course of events more accurately than the “theories of the heretics.”
Francis Crawford Burkitt (1864–1935) was Norris Professor of Divinity at the University of Cambridge from 1905 to 1934. His academic focus was on the reception of the New Testament and textual criticism. He is known both for the critical stance he took on the notion of the Caesarean text type proposed by B. H. Streeter and also for his standard edition of Curetonianus, one of two known existing Old Syriac New Testament manuscripts.
History of the Transmission of Ancient Books to Modern Times
This volume explains how ancient literary and historical works are authenticated, with particular attention given to Scripture. Isaac Taylor combined two books, Process of Historical Proof and History of the Transmission of Ancient Books to Modern Times, weaving them together with new material to challenge Christians to take seriously the relationship between Christianity and history.
Isaac Taylor (1787–1865) was an English philosopher, historian, scientist, and artist. He served as the editor of the Eclectic Review and wrote many books, including Wesley, and Methodism, Home Education, Ancient Christianity and the Doctrines of the Oxford Tracts, The Restoration of Belief, Logic in Theology and Ultimate Civilisation, and The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry.
Some Thoughts on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament
George Salmon offers analysis on the recent history of New Testament textual criticism up to 1897. He explains the major issues in biblical text criticism, including Westcott and Hort’s nomenclature, the Syrian Textus Receptus, the omissions of the Western text, the Synoptic problem, and the problem of accounting for Western variations. Though he asks critical questions, Salmon concludes with the assertion, “The doubt that hangs over a few determinations [of the text] does not affect the certainty of our faith.”
George Salmon (1819–1904) was an Anglican theologian and mathematician. He graduated from Trinity College, Dublin in 1839. He became a fellow and professor of mathematics at Trinity College in 1841 at the age of 21. He was ordained in the Church of Ireland in 1845 and was concurrently appointed to a professorship in theology at Trinity. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and received the Copley Medal for his work in mathematics, but by 1889 he was exclusively devoted to theology. He spent his entire career at Trinity College and was provost from 1888 until his death in 1904. He wrote several mathematical and theological texts, including A Treatise on Conic Sections, The Evidences of the Work of the Holy Spirit: A Sermon, Infallibility of the Church, and An Historical Introduction to the Study of the Books of the New Testament.
As a professor of Hebrew, Crawford Howell Toy saw New Testament quotations of the Old as a link between the Israelites and Christianity. He believed that they answered the questions of how Christianity grew out of the Jewish tradition, and he stated that “There is almost no line of thought in the [Old Testament] whether theological, ceremonial, or ethical, that is not appropriated by the [New Testament], and somehow woven into its own fabric of thought.”
Crawford Howell Toy (1836–1919) was a Hebrew scholar and professor in the United States. He was born in Virginia and attended the University of Virginia, graduating in 1856. He went overseas to study at the University of Berlin from 1866 to 1868. Returning to America, he became professor of Hebrew at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Controversy arose as Toy’s religious views changed and he adopted a modernist perspective. In 1879, he was forced to resign from the Seminary. In 1880 he took up a position at Harvard as professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages, and was Dexter lecturer on biblical literature. Toy eventually embraced Unitarianism. Among his works are, The History and Religion of Israel: An Old Testament Primer, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Proverbs, and Introduction to the History of Religions.
The Old Testament in the New: A Contribution to Biblical Criticism and Interpretation
This volume classifies quotations from the Old Testament that appear in the New Testament, according to their agreement with or variation from the original quote. It also includes various readings and versions of the passages, with critical notes.
David McCalman Turpie wrote several books, including A Manual of the Chaldee Language, Sketches of My Own Times, and The Mundas of Dundas.
A Guide to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament
Written for all students of the Bible, this book acts as a manual for New Testament textual criticism. Edward Miller discusses various approaches to textual criticism, as well as its history and development. He also outlines the principles and materials of criticism, and adds an appendix on the disputed last 12 verses of Mark’s Gospel.
Edward Miller (1825–1901) was an English vicar and a fellow and tutor of New College, Oxford. He also wrote The History and Doctrines of Irvingism.
Essays Chiefly on the Original Texts of the Old and New Testaments
Irish scholar Thomas Kingsmill Abbott presents seven essays on both the Old and New Testament texts, covering the Massoretic text, the history of the Hebrew text before the Massoretes, New Testament lexicography, the use of Greek in the time of Christ, the miracle of the holy thorn, and more.
Thomas Kingsmill Abbott (1829–1913) was an ordained minister in the Church of Ireland, a fellow and tutor of Trinity College, Dublin, and professor of Hebrew in the University of Dublin. He graduated from Trinity College in 1851, and was made a fellow in 1854. He earned his MA and DLitt from Trinity. Between 1867 and 1900 he occupied three chairs at Trinity—moral philosophy, biblical Greek, and Hebrew. He became librarian in 1900. Abbott received an honorary doctorate in divinity from the University of Glasgow in 1901. He wrote and edited several books, and translated Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason, which was used as the standard English text for many years.
Vetus Testamentum in Novo: Die Alttestamentlichen Parallelen des Neuen Testaments im Wortlaut der Urtexte und der Septuaginta