This resource contains the critical apparatus to the book of Psalms translated from the Hebrew, as well as a variant reading of IV Esdras 15:59–16:32. Both texts have been included along with this edition of the Vulgate for the purpose of comparison. In the electronic edition these texts have been created as an independent resource in order to use the comparison tools of Logos Bible Software. Jerome translated the Greek and Hebrew Scriptures into the common language of the fourth century, which was Latin. His translation was used extensively throughout the Middle Ages and was recognized as the authoritative Bible of the Roman Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1546. The widespread use of the Vulgate can be seen in its influence on early modern Bible translations, such as the King James Version. Since the Vulgate was originally penned in the fourth century AD, the original text evolved its own variant readings and manuscript families. This modern edition is a critical compilation of these manuscripts. The Vulgate continues to be used today for the study of the textual transmission of the Bible and in the historical study of Christian theology.