Given the foundational importance of circumcision in the Old Testament and its prevalence in numerous debates in the New Testament, it is surprising that so little detailed work has been done on establishing a biblical theology of circumcision. This lack is even more surprising given that circumcision forms the background for some of the most hotly contested writings of the apostle Paul. The situation is complicated by the fact that the biblical material on circumcision seems to present often quite different and even apparently contradictory pictures of what circumcision means. Two of the key biblical concepts which are closely linked to circumcision in the debates carried on in Paul’s letters and the early church are righteousness and faith. In this NSBT volume, Karl Deenick shows that these two concepts are central to both the New Testament understanding and the developing Old Testament understanding of circumcision. They are held together by the unfolding promise of a blameless “seed of Abraham,” Jesus Christ, through whose sacrifice the promised righteousness will finally come—a righteousness which will be enjoyed by those whose hearts are circumcised, who trust in God’s promise.