The Social-Science Commentary series presents a pioneering alternative commentary genre that offers a contextual approach to the study of the New Testament, thoroughly grounded in the original audience’s first-century cultural setting. This commentary on the Gospel of John builds on the unique format and success of the Social-Science Commentary on the Synoptic Gospels and includes illustrations and photographs for maximum socio-cultural content. Unlike the usual historical, exegetical, or theological commentaries, this rich and engrossing work assembles and catalogs the pertinent values, conflicts, and mores of ancient Mediterranean culture. Its Gospel outline, detailed textual notes, and “reading scenarios” bring life and light to the social circumstances the Gospel text relates about childhood, money, divorce, military service, farming, family life, cities, demons, patronage, and a host of other aspects of the ancient world. The “reading scenarios” sections present the perspective of the original audience drawn from anthropological studies of the Mediterranean social system, offering clues for filling in the unspoken or implicit elements of the writing as a Mediterranean reader would certainly have done. The authors argue that, in many ways, the Fourth Gospel addresses an alienated anti-society, fundamentally at odds with the predominant culture. With its format, charts, and photos, this social-science commentary is the ideal companion for the study of the Fourth Gospel.