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Classic Studies on the Atonement (32 vols.)


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The Classic Studies on the Atonement collection presents many of the defining late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century studies on the atonement of Christ. Thanks to such notable authors as R. W. Dale, John Miley, Octavius Winslow, and David Smith, Classic Studies on the Atonement interprets, translates, contextualizes, and applies foundational works on this important doctrine. The collection’s 32 volumes and 9,000 pages have had an enduring impact on our understanding of atonement. This exceptional library provides easy access to a wealth of significant scholarship.

This collection is essential for students, scholars, pastors, historians, teachers of the Bible, and anyone else studying atonement. With Logos Bible Software, these volumes are completely searchable—Scripture passages appear on mouseover and link to your Greek and Hebrew texts and English translations. For scholarly work or personal Bible study, this makes these volumes more powerful and easier to access than ever before. With Logos’ advanced features, you can perform comprehensive searches by topic or Scripture reference—finding, for example, every mention of “expiation,” “propitiation,” or “Mark 14:24.”

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  • Title: Classic Studies on the Atonement
  • Volumes: 32
  • Pages: 9,947
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The Spiritual Principle of the Atonement

  • Author: John Scott Lidgett
  • Publisher: Charles H. Kelly
  • Publication Date: 1898
  • Pages: 498

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In 10 lectures, John Scott Lidgett covers all phases of the atonement: its historical causes, the biblical doctrine concerning it, the theology of the atonement, the satisfaction of God, the ethical perfection of Jesus, the relationship between Christ and mankind, the atonement in relation to the spiritual life of individuals, and the atonement and social progress. Lidgett begins his study of the atonement by examining the doctrine as expressed in the epistles of Paul; then he looks at the Gospels and the Old Testament.

John Scott Lidgett (1854–1953) earned his MA in 1875 from University College, London, and was awarded a DD by the University of Aberdeen in 1902. He was president of the Wesleyan Methodist Conference in 1908 and was an early supporter of the ecumenical movement. His works include The Fatherhood of God, God in Christ Jesus, and The Idea of God and Social Ideals.

The Doctrine of Holy Scripture Respecting the Atonement

  • Author: Thomas J. Crawford
  • Publisher: William Blackwood and Sons
  • Publication Date: 1883
  • Pages: 538

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“The Atonement is a pure matter of revelation. Whether as regards the truths which it embodies, the principles on which it rests, or the ends to which it is conducive, we have no reliable means of information beyond what God has given us in His Word.” Thomas J. Crawford divides his study of the atonement into four parts: the atonement as found in the New Testament, the atonement as found in the Old Testament, a review of various theories respecting the sufferings of Christ, and a review of objections to the scriptural doctrine of the atonement.

He shows beyond any reasonable controversy that the Scriptures teach that Christ’s sufferings were truly vicarious, expiatory, and in satisfaction of violated justice. He exposes the futility of all contrary theories, and of all objections to the true doctrine, with great ability.

Presbyterian Quarterly and Princeton Review

Thomas J. Crawford (1812–1875) was a professor of divinity at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland. His numerous works include Reasons of Adherence to the Church of Scotland and An Argument for Jewish Missionaries.

The Atonement

  • Author: R. W. Dale
  • Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton
  • Publication Date: 1875
  • Pages: 503

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R. W. Dale begins his study of the atonement by distinguishing the death of Christ as a fact and the doctrine or theory concerning it. An important distinction, for it is not the doctrine of the death of Christ that atones for human sin, but the death itself. Dale’s object in these lectures is “to show that there is a direct relation between the death of Christ and the remission of sins, and to investigate the principles and grounds of that relation; first, to establish a fact, and then to attempt the construction of a theory.” Dale examines the Passion of Christ, Christ’s words regarding the atonement, the apostolic testimony to the atonement, and several conflicting theories about it.

It is characterized by intellectual vigor and by moral force and freshness. The writer is earnest, the style eloquent and manly, while in the present condition of theological thought it is particularly cheering to find the objective and propitiatory character of the atonement maintained throughout, and the doctrine of redemption investigated in a spirit of heartiest loyalty to the Word written and to the Word Incarnate.

London Quarterly Review

We can confidently speak of Mr. Dale’s work on the Atonement as one of the most valuable contributions to the theological literature of our day. The treatment here is thoroughly biblical, as it should be. It does justice to the author’s reputation as a scholarly, discriminating, candid, and devout theologian.

Yale Review

R. W. Dale (1829–1895) was educated at Springs Hill College, University of London, University of Glasgow, and Yale University. Dale primarily pastored Carr’s Lane Chapel from 1854 to 1895, and he later went on to become chair of the Congregational Union of England and Wales.

The Doctrine of the Atonement

  • Author: J. K. Mozley
  • Publisher: Charles Scribner’s Sons
  • Publication Date: 1916
  • Pages: 235

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J. K. Mozley’s The Doctrine of the Atonement is primarily historical and descriptive. His object is to present the evidence, as regards to both the foundations of the doctrine and the various expositions of the doctrine itself, with fullness and clarity. He traces the doctrine through the Old Testament, in the testimony of the synoptic gospels, through the New Testament, in Greek and Latin theology, and finally through the Reformation and Post-Reformation eras. “For the Atonement, as fact and doctrine, should evoke feelings not only of respect and self-surrender but of worship.”

The book is written in a charming style, clear and pointed; and so far as its two main sections are concerned—those on the biblical material and on the history of the doctrine—it is not only informing, but illuminating.

B. B. Warfield, Princeton Theological Review

John Kenneth Mozley (1883–1946) was fellow and dean of Pembroke College, Cambridge, and the author of numerous works, including The Doctrine of God, The Achievements of Christianity, and Historic Christianity and the Apostles’ Creed.

The Atonement in the Light of History and the Modern Spirit

  • Author: David Smith
  • Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton
  • Pages: 226

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In The Atonement in the Light of History and the Modern Spirit, David Smith begins with three historic interpretations of the doctrine: the Ransom theory, the Satisfaction theory, and the Forensic theory. Smith then divides his study into four sections representing “modern” interpretations: fatherhood and sacrifice, the satisfaction of man’s moral instincts, imputation and heredity, and man’s offering to God.

David Smith (1866–1932) was a professor of theology at M’Crea Magee College, Londonderry. His works include The Art of Preaching, Christian Counsel, The Gospel according to St. Matthew with Introduction and Notes, and The Days of His Flesh: The Earthly Life of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

On the Atonement and Intercession of Jesus Christ

  • Author: William Symington
  • Publisher: Robert Carter
  • Publication Date: 1847
  • Pages: 308

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In On the Atonement and Intercession of Jesus Christ, William Symington begins by defining the important terms that relate to the atonement—reconciliation, redemption, propitiation, satisfaction, substitution, vicarious, and expiation. He then attempts to answer the most common and popular objections to the doctrine. Following the objections, Symington shows the necessity of the atonement by way of the perfections of God, the nature of moral government, and the testimony of the Scriptures themselves. Symington then exhibits the reality of the atonement by examining ancient and Levitical sacrifices, prophecy, the sufferings of Christ, the extent of the atonement, and more.

The second part of Symington’s pivotal work examines the intercession of Christ. Here Symington divides the area of study into five distinct parts: the reality of intercession, the nature of intercession, the matter of intercession, the properties of intercession, and the results of intercession.

This work is more comprehensive than any work on the subject, with which we are acquainted; it embraces every point which it is proper to have discussed in a popular treatise. It would be difficult to find an involved or obscure sentence in the whole book.

Charles Hodge, Biblical Repertory and Theological Review

William Symington was a professor of systematic theology in the Free Church, Glasgow. His works include Messiah the Prince, Discourses upon the Existence and Attributes of God, and The Character and Claims of the Scottish Martyrs.

The Atonement

  • Author: Borden P. Bowne
  • Publisher: Curts & Jennings
  • Publication Date: 1900
  • Pages: 152

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This study of the atonement, while dealing with theory, has mainly a practical aim. It is due to Bowne’s conviction that the gracious truth in the doctrine has often been hidden by theological theories which, while well-meant, are really confusing or misleading. Further, while many of these theories are antiquated or greatly modified in most theological circles, their echoes remain in popular religious thought, and trouble many minds that have not learned to distinguish between the Christian fact and the theological theory. Thus, the doctrine of Divine Grace becomes a stumbling block. With The Atonement, Bowne removes this obstacle by explaining the doctrine of the atonement in plain and practical language.

Borden P. Bowne was a Methodist professor of philosophy at Boston University for over 30 years. His numerous works include Metaphysics, Philosophy of Theism, The Christian Revelation, and The Essence of Religion.

The Atonement

  • Author: Leighton Pullan
  • Publisher: Longmans, Green, and Co.
  • Publication Date: 1906
  • Pages: 262

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Before examining the doctrine of the atonement, Leighton Pullman provides two chapters of introduction; the first on sin, the second on Jesus Christ. He then traces the atonement through the Old Testament, the Synoptic Gospels, the writings of St. John, the primitive Jewish Christian teachings (as taught by St. Paul), and the Epistle to the Hebrews.

A weighty and valuable exposition of the scriptural doctrine concerning atonement.

The Sewanee Review

A careful and painstaking study on the old lines.

Review of Theology and Philosophy

Leighton Pullan (1865–1940) was a lecturer in theology at St. John’s and Oriel Colleges. His works include The History of the Book of Common Prayer, The History of Early Christianity, Early Christian Doctrine, and The Church of the Fathers.

Historic Theories of Atonement with Comments

  • Author: Robert Mackintosh
  • Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton
  • Publication Date: 1920
  • Pages: 319

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Historic Theories of Atonement with Comments critiques the various theories concerning the atonement which have found expression from the patristic times through the nineteenth century. To introduce the critiques, Mackintosh begins by discussing the moral necessity of the atonement, the Old Testament preparation for the doctrine, Christ’s thoughts of his own death, and the apostolic teaching of the atonement.

If Dr. Mackintosh enjoyed giving the lectures out of which this book has grown, a like experience awaits any reader whose mind can respond to alert and vigorous criticism of past and present soteriologies.

Church Quarterly Review

The writer possesses real erudition and other qualifications for a critical work of this sort—not the least of these a profound faith in our Lord as the one and only Savior of mankind.

New American Church Monthly

Robert Mackintosh was a professor of apologetics at Lancashire Independent College, Manchester. His numerous works include Christianity and Sin, Hegel and Hegelianism, Essays towards a New Theology, and A First Primer of Apologetics.

The Atonement: A Brief Study

  • Author: Otis Cole
  • Publisher: The Methodist Book Concern
  • Publication Date: 1921
  • Pages: 47

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The Atonement: A Brief Study contains Otis Cole’s succinct and powerful study of the atonement doctrine. “It is my hope that a reading of this little book may make clearer to some who are not yet in the fullness of the light that God is indeed love, that he has shown his love from the dawn of creation and is ever ready to forgive the erring human and to give him a fresh impulse to start anew. From the wisdom of age I can reaffirm the idea that God’s love is the most basic principle of the world.”

Otis Cole (1832–1922) was a Methodist preacher and successful New England grocer. He is the author of The History of the New Hampshire Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

The Atonement in Christ

  • Author: John Miley
  • Publisher: Eaton & Mains
  • Publication Date: 1879
  • Pages: 351

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The atonement may be treated in a broader or in a more restricted sense. In the former sense, it may include the whole of soteriology, while in the latter it may be treated specially as the ground of justification, or the forgiveness of sin. In each case the comprehension is logically determined by cardinal doctrines of the system in connection with which the subject is treated. After determining the facts of the atonement and defining connected terms, John Miley proceeds with an explanation of the necessity for atonement. He then critiques the prevailing theories built from the facts, shedding light on their history and answering objections.

Although this volume is our first introduction to Dr. Miley, it makes us quite sure, that, if his life is spared, it is only the earnest of important contributions to theology yet to come from his strong and prolific pen. It shows mastery of the literature of the subject, which, instead of having been passed over with superficial glances, has been carefully digested by him in keen and profound thinking.

The Presbyterian Review

John Miley (1813–1895) served as chair of systematic theology at Drew University in Madison, NJ. He was the author of Systematic Theology, a two-volume work which served as a key text for Methodist seminarians for decades.

A Historical Sketch of Opinions on the Atonement, Interspersed with Biographical Notices of the Leading Doctors

  • Author: James R. Willson
  • Publisher: Edward Earle
  • Publication Date: 1817
  • Pages: 351

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A Historical Sketch of Opinions on the Atonement, Interspersed with Biographical Notices of the Leading Doctors consists of two parts: “Historical Sketches” and English translations of Francis Turrettin’s writings on the atonement. In the “Historical Sketches,” James R. Willson traces the varying progress and development of opinion on the atonement, from the beginning of the era down to his own immediate contemporaries. The Turretin translation is from questions 10–14 of the Institutio Theologiae Elencticae, with the insertion in one instance of a short extract from another portion of the same work.

James R. Willson (1780–1853) was a minister of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America. His works include Subjection of Kings and Nations to Messiah, Prince Messiah’s Claims to Dominion over All Governments and the Disregard of His Authority by the United States in the Federal Constitution, and The Written Law, or the Law of God Revealed in the Scriptures, By Christ the Mediator.

Studies in the Atonement

  • Author: Willard Nathan Tobie
  • Publisher: Eaton & Mains
  • Publication Date: 1914
  • Pages: 185

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In his study of the atonement, Willard Nathan Tobie holds to the fact and necessity of the atonement. His viewpoint is that the principle of the Cross is cosmic and the death of Christ is the consummation and perfect embodiment of the vicarious principle of the universe. The Cross was necessary for the self-revelation and self-propitiation of God.

Willard Nathan Tobie was a Methodist preacher and author, educated at Cornell University. His works include Two Beautiful Prayers from the Lips of Jesus, At the Beautiful Gate of the Church, and Our English Bible: How We Got It.

Ethics and Atonement

  • Author: W. F. Lofthouse
  • Publisher: Methuen & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1906
  • Pages: 302

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In Ethics and Atonement, W. F. Lofthouse maintains that the doctrine of the atonement is not an artificial theorem or an inexplicable or unethical dogma, but that it has its roots in the foundations of all human life. He believes it is really the highest expression of the law of all moral and social progress, and that ethics itself is of little use, as a practical science, unless completed by the atonement. Ethics and Atonement is divided into the following sections:

  • Ethics in the Bible
  • Ethics outside the Bible
  • Duties and Persons
  • Reconciliation
  • Mediation
  • Anger and Forgiveness
  • Symbolism and Reality
  • The God-Man
  • Personality
  • Atonement and the Race
The book is a welcome discussion of a matter of the first importance, enriched by a wealth of allusions, and vigorously loyal to the fundamental truths of Christianity.

London Quarterly Review

The book is one of enduring value, marking as it does the beginning of that new treatment of the atonement from the side which is the only one acceptable to modern ways of thought—the ethical. It remains only to be added that there is such a delightful spring and freshness in the writing that there is not a dull page in the book.

Review of Philosophy and Theology

W. F. Lofthouse (1871–1965) trained for the Wesleyan ministry at Richmond College and was ordained in 1896. He was a founding member of the Wesleyan Methodist Union for Social Service in 1905. Strongly ecumenical, he was active in the Faith and Order Movement. His other works include The Social Teaching of the Bible, The Family and the State, and The Father and the Son.

The Extent of the Atonement, in Its Relation to God and the Universe

  • Author: Thomas W. Jenkyn
  • Publisher: Gould and Lincoln
  • Publication Date: 1859
  • Pages: 376

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“No man can be innocently indifferent to the doctrine of the gospel concerning this atonement. By its dignity and authority, it deserves and demands the most serious consideration of every man who hears of it.” A seminal work on the subject, The Extent of the Atonement thoroughly exhausts the subject. Starting from the great central doctrine, the discussion radiates in every direction and touches every related point. Thomas W. Jenkyn covers the doctrine in the following 15 chapters:

  • On the Nature and Design of the Atonement
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to the Person of the Song of God
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to the Perfections of God
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to the Purposes of God
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to the Works of God
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to Divine Moral Government
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to the Providence of God
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to the Whole System of Divine Truth
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to Sin
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to the Salvation of the Human Race
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to the Work of the Holy Spirit
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to the Church
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to the Various Dispensations of Revealed Religion
  • On the Atonement in Its Relation to the Eternal State of the Universe
  • On the Moral Grandeur of the Doctrine of the Atonement
As a treatise on the grand relations of the atonement, it is a book which may be emphatically said to contain the ‘seeds of things,’ the elements of mightier and nobler contributions of thought respecting the sacrifice of Christ, than any modern production. It is characterized by a highly original and clear train of thought, which makes the reader feel that he is holding communion with a mind that can mingle with the universe. We consider the volume as setting the long and fiercely-agitated question, as to the extent of the atonement, completely at rest. The grandeur with which it invests the Son of God and the glories of his sacrifice, which it displays as shedding their light and influence over the whole extended empire of Jehovah, gives it an extraordinary claim upon the attention of the reading community.

New York Evangelist

We really do not know any work which we would sooner recommend than this, to those Christians who desire to obtain rational and scriptural views of the atonement.

Evangelical Magazine

According to our judgment, we think it difficult for any man to read this work thoughtfully, without having his mind overwhelmed with astonishment at the wonderful process by which is brought before him the atonement of Christ in its relations to all the administrations of God; and without feeling his soul kindling with emotions the most devout and glowing in the presence of the glorious sacrifice of the Mediator.

Home Missionary Magazine

An excellent treatise, on the most solemn and interesting subject of which the human heart is cognizable. Its strictly scriptural, and its tenderly benevolent tone is not more to be praised than its arguments and illustrations are convincing and satisfactory.

Monthly Review

The whole doctrine, in all its relations, is presented in a striking and forcible manner, and with an array of argument on the different points, which antagonists will not easily overthrow.

Biblical Repository and Classical Review

Thomas W. Jenkyn (1870–1959) was president of Coward College, London. His numerous works include Making Light of Christ and Salvation: Too Oft the Issue of Gospel Invitations, The Law Unsealed: A Practical Exposition of the Ten Commandments, and The Union of the Holy Spirit and the Church in the Conversion of the World.

Manual of the Christian Atonement

  • Author: Thomas Lape
  • Publisher: M. W. Dodd
  • Publication Date: 1851
  • Pages: 158

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Thomas Lape’s Manual of the Christian Atonement is an accessible and straight-forward study of the atonement. “In whatever Christians differ on minor points of fundamental doctrines of Christianity, let them cultivate sentiments expressed by Augustine of old: ‘In fundamentals, unity; in non-essentials, liberty; in all things, charity.’” With unadorned language and clarity, Lape examines the basis, necessity, meaning, nature, value, manner, efficacy, extent, and results of the atonement.

Thomas Lape (1801–1879) was educated at Hartwick Seminary and Union College and was assistant professor of Latin, Greek, English, and German. His works include The Mourner Comforted and The Early Saved.

Anselm’s Theory of the Atonement

  • Author: George Cadwalader Foley
  • Publisher: Longmans, Green, and Co.
  • Publication Date: 1909
  • Pages: 327

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The John Bohlen lectures for 1908, Anselm’s Theory of the Atonement is not a constructive statement of the doctrine of the atonement; it is a critical and historical study of the claim that the Reformation dogma is the Catholic doctrine. As this has long been regarded as the test of orthodoxy and has been, in a multitude of instances, a painful obstacle to faith, the evidence that it is absent from the ancient and patristic teaching is offered as a useful apologetic, which may clear the way for a simpler, more rational, and more scriptural expression of the redemptive work of Christ.

By his selection of such a subject as St. Anselm’s conception of the atonement, Dr. Foley pays tribute to the elements of enduring value which the author of the Cure Deus Home has bequeathed to the religious thought of the world.

The Sewanee Review

George Cadwalader Foley (1851–1935) was professor of homiletics and pastoral care in the Divinity School of the Protestant Episcopal Church, Philadelphia. His works include The Ministry of the Church and The Influence of St. Augustine.

The Nature of the Atonement

  • Author: William Adamson
  • Publisher: Hamilton, Adams, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1880
  • Pages: 199

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In William Adamson’s classic Nature of Atonement, obscure and misleading terms are explained and their measure of truth and error are laid bare; the purpose of Christ in his redeeming work is expressed clearly. Succinct and simple, Adamson’s text addresses the history of the doctrine, the condition of the incarnation, Christ the sin-bearer, the vicarious nature of the atonement, the atonement as practical power, and much more.

The treatise is written throughout in a simple, earnest, and intelligible style, and is well fitted to influence ignorant and unlearned readers, and at the same time to instruct and interest the most cultured believers in revealed religion.

The Scotsman

We see in the book evident traces of wide and varied reading, great skill in handling his subject, and high dialectic power.

Daily Review

Dr. William Adamson has dealt with this all-important subject on the grand old lines with which the Evangelical Church has been so long familiar, but which have of late years, been to some extent covered and hidden from sight by finely spun theories.

The Rock

The work will be a good introduction to the branch of theology to which it belongs. The student who masters its contents will be in possession of excellent positive doctrine, presented without much of the controversial element. Dr. Adamson writes in an easy, correct, and scholarly style.

The Methodist

The style is simple, and Dr. Adamson’s utterances have the eminent merit of being easily comprehensible. His book is a fine illustration of the fact that clearness is not shallowness. Simple and unpretending as it is, it is the result of wide reading and of careful thought.

Christian Age

It is one of those quiet, thoughtful, scholarly works which take hold of heart and hand. There is little religious sentiment, but there is the gist of religion itself expounded in these pages.


William Adamson (1830–1910) was the author of numerous works, including The Religious Anecdotes of Scotland, The Gospel of Evolution, The Righteousness of God, and Missionary Anecdotes.

The Philosophy of the Atonement

  • Author: Robert Paterson
  • Publisher: David Bryce and Son
  • Publication Date: 1892
  • Pages: 217

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Before discussing leading objections to the atonement as a vicarious sacrifice and satisfaction to God, Robert Paterson lays the groundwork for the doctrine in simple form. He then discusses several theories of the doctrine, such as the moral, biblical, uniformitarian, and more. As he states in the introduction, “the Atonement as represented by the inspired writers is a rational conception,” and it is possible for us to see it in this century just as they saw it.

Robert Paterson was also the author of The Biblical Theory of Vicarious Sacrifice.

The Atonement: Discourses and Treatises

  • Publisher: Congregational Board of Publication
  • Publication Date: 1859
  • Pages: 596

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The Atonement: Discourses and Treatises is an anthology containing seven prominent preachers’ and teachers’ writings on the atonement. Included in this volume:

  • Introductory Essay by E. A. Park
  • Three Sermons on the Necessity of Atonement by Jonathan Edwards
  • Justification through Christ, an Act of Free Grace and None But Believers Saved through the All-Sufficient Satisfaction of Christ by John Smalley
  • A Discourse Designed to Explain the Doctrine of the Atonement by Jonathan Maxcy
  • Two Sermons on the Atonement by Nathanael Emmons
  • An Humble Attempt to Reconcile the Differences of Christians Respecting the Extent of the Atonement by Edward D. Griffin
  • An Essay on the Scripture Doctrine of Atonement by Caleb Burge
  • A Dialogue on the Atonement by William R. Weeks

The Atonement and Modern Thought

  • Authors: Junius B. Remensnyder, Benjamin B. Warfield
  • Publisher: Lutheran Publication Society
  • Publication Date: 1905
  • Pages: 223

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In The Atonement and Modern Thought, Remensnyder sets forth and defends the satisfaction doctrine of the atonement: the doctrine that the atonement was a satisfaction to divine justice, and that Christ made this satisfaction by taking the place of the sinner, bearing the penalty of his sin and thus expiating its guilt. Scripturally based and methodic, this Lutheran view of the atonement moves step by step through the entire doctrine and examines many of the questions that surround it. This volume includes an introduction from B. B. Warfield.

The battle in which Dr. Remensnyder has drawn his sword is the battle of every Christian man, and no one bearing the name of Christian has a right to refuse to do his part in it. It is quite true that Dr. Remensnyder writes from his own point of view, with which my own does not perfectly coincide. He is a Lutheran of the Lutherans—I am of the Reformed; and these two historical types of Christian thinking do not see quite eye to eye in all matters that concern even this central doctrine of Christianity. Were it my duty to follow him in all the details of his exposition, I am afraid, therefore, I should have occasionally to enter a somewhat emphatic dissent. But fortunately it is possible to differ in some things and yet heartily agree in the main thing, and happily this is true in the present case.

—from the introduction by B. B. Warfield

Junius B. Remensnyder (1830–1910) was pastor of the English Evangelical Lutheran Church of St. James, New York. He was the author of numerous works, including Heavenward: A Guide for Youth, The Lutheran Manual, The Post-Apostolic Age and Current Religious Problems, and What the World Owes Luther.

The Doctrine of the Atonement

  • Author: Lewis Edwards
  • Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton
  • Publication Date: 1888
  • Pages: 498

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Written as a catechism, the author of this dialogue, while fully acknowledging the unfathomable mystery of the atonement—a mystery that lies in the inscrutable depths of the infinite itself—endeavors to discover, so far as that is possible, the real significance of the doctrine. Edwards seeks to present the true conception of the atonement and to show that our inability to comprehend it arises from the mystery of the infinite, not from any inconsistency or unreality in the doctrine itself.

Dr. Edwards adopts the literary form of dialogue—between teacher and disciple—and manages it with naturalness and flexibility.

Biblio Sacra

Lewis Edwards (1809–1987) was a Welsh educator and Nonconformist minister. He was the editor of Y Traethodydd, a quarterly magazine which he founded in 1845, for 10 years.

The Reconciliation

  • Author: Paul Petter Waldenström
  • Publisher: John Martenson
  • Publication Date: 1888
  • Pages: 118

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When approaching doctrine in the Bible, Paul Petter Waldenström always had this essential question in mind: “What is written in God’s Word?” With this biblical approach to exegesis, Waldenström’s The Reconciliation argues that the doctrine of a reconciliation of God to men is wholly pagan and that the doctrine of a reconciliation of man to God is alone scriptural. For Waldenström, the cross is not a penal substitution for God’s wrath, but the penultimate demonstration of God’s love.

Professor Waldenström’s thought as to this theme is all of one piece. His rejection of the unscriptural conception of atonement instead of the New Testament reconciliation proceeds from no Pelagianism, but from Apostolic apprehensions of the love of God in the work of Christ.

Andover Review

Paul Petter Waldenström (1838–1917) was a leader in the Swedish Free Church movement of the late nineteenth century. His works translated in English include The Lord is Right and The Blood of Jesus: What is Its Significance?

The Extent and Efficacy of the Atonement

  • Author: Howard Malcom
  • Publisher: Robert Carter
  • Publication Date: 1840
  • Pages: 136

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

The Extent and Efficacy of the Atonement was originally an introductory discourse before the Boston Baptist Association delivered in 1832. It was afterward expanded and revised for publication. Howard Malcom’s study of the atonement focuses on the object or design of the atonement and on the proof that its design was the salvation of the elect. His argument is traced in the following 10 chapters:

  • The Motive and Design of Christ in Assuming the Office of Mediator
  • The Vicariousness of the Atonement
  • The System of Old Testament Types
  • Terms Used in Relation to the Atonement
  • The Justice of God
  • The Deity of Christ and Unity of the Divine Nature
  • The Federal Union between Christ and His People
  • The Declared Effects of the Atonement
  • Objections
  • Practical Observations
The discerning and independent mind of Mr. Malcom has been directed in this case, to a subject of wonderful magnitude, and sublimity; and we may be allowed to say at once, that he has been successful in pursuing and exhibiting many important truths in connection with this profound mystery of redemption.

Christian Index

We love to think that the blessed cause of Jesus has such an advocate, and that our own denomination enjoys the services of a minister, so bold in contending for the truth, and so fair and consistent in maintaining its power in his own life.

—New York Baptist Repository

Howard Malcom (1799–1879) was educated at Dickinson College and Princeton Theological Seminary and served as president for Georgetown University and Bucknell University. His works include Travels in South-Eastern Asia and The Christian’s Rule of Marriage.

Experimental and Practical Views of the Atonement

  • Author: Octavius Winslow
  • Publisher: John S. Taylor
  • Publication Date: 1838
  • Pages: 248

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

“The doctrine of the atonement of Christ is the central truth of the Bible, on which all others are based, and around which they all entwine.” Devotional in nature, Octavius Winslow’s Experimental and Practical Views of the Atonement begins with an introduction on the use of reason in the investigation of spiritual matters. He then examines the character of the atonement, the atonement in its relation to the Godhead of Christ, the design of the atonement, and more. He concludes the volume with a treatise entitled “The Fearful Alternative of Rejecting the Atonement.”

The author of this manual contemplates a mind anxiously inquiring ‘What shall I do to be saved?’ and, anticipating the difficulties connected with the doctrine of the atonement, meets every inquiry with a lucid explanation and a salutary address to the heart. Its sound and scriptural views, its pathetic appeals, its insinuating style, and its deep-toned piety, comment it to the candid attention of every awakened mind.

Eclectic Review

While we might not adopt every expression of the author, we are sure, that no sincere Christian can rise from the perusal of this work, without a renewed impression of the inestimable value and variety of the blessings purchased by the blood of Christ.

Literary and Theological Review

It is a heart-searching treatise; we pray the Great Searcher of all hears to accompany with His divine influence the striking and solemn appeals with which it abounds.

Christian Lady’s Magazine

A small volume upon the most momentous subjects that can engage the thought of man. Sound doctrine, conveyed in persuasive language, speaking to the mind and conscious, forms the contents of its pages.

Protestant Magazine

The work before us is a mirror in which Christ, in his atoning sacrifice, is reflected in the face of the Church, and in which she beholds her entire beauty, righteousness and eternal life, as hid with Christ in God.

Albany Spectator

They will be relished by the experienced Christian; and the little volume, now noticed, can scarcely be read by any professor without benefit.

Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review

Octavius Winslow (1808–1878) earned his MA at New York University and was awarded an honorary DD from Columbia College in 1851. A prolific writer, he wrote The Work of the Holy Spirit: An Experimental and Practical View, The Tree of Life, and Christian Experience: Words of Loving Counsel and Sympathy, among other titles.

The Moral System and the Atonement

  • Author: Samuel Davies Cochran
  • Publisher: Edward J. Goodrich
  • Publication Date: 1889
  • Pages: 546

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

Samuel Davies Cochran’s theory of the atonement begins with accepting the common view of its nature as an infinitely valuable expiatory satisfaction to God and proceeds to a position of its intention. He examines the mode of God’s existence, the Incarnation of Christ, the redemptive plan and eternal purpose of God, expiation and propitiation, Christ’s relations and his atonement to mankind, and much more. Cochran also gives in-depth critiques of various alternate theories concerning the doctrine.

It deserves careful attention from any who expect to be useful in the coming exploration of the vital Christian truth of the atonement.

Our Day: A Record and Review of Current Reform

The work embodies the results of years of labor and inquiry, pursued by the author with confidence in the truth, and is commended to the attention of all who would study the doctrine from another and higher view point.

Methodist Review

If abounds in fresh aspects of many doctrines. It is not a review of controversies, nor a history of doctrines, but a search for what God has revealed—careful, enterprising, and in dead earnest.

Biblio Sacra

Samuel Davies Cochran (1804–1904) was educated at Oberlin College and Theological Seminary. He was active in the abolition movement and almost assassinated for his views. His works include Metaphysics and Theology and Address to Anti-Slavery Whigs.

The Catholic Doctrine of the Atonement: An Historical Inquiry into Its Development in the Church

  • Author: Henry Nutcombe Oxenham
  • Publisher: William H. Allen & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1869
  • Pages: 314

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

The Catholic Doctrine of the Atonement: An Historical Inquiry into Its Development in the Church is designed to trace through the patristic, scholastic, and later periods of theology the Catholic doctrine on the atonement, comparing it also with the principal Reformed systems. Oxenham traces the doctrine in the following chapters:

  • Preliminary Considerations
  • The Ante-Nicene Fathers
  • The Later Fathers and Scotus Eriugena
  • St. Anselm and the Schoolmen
  • Theories of the Reformation Period
  • Later Catholic Theology
  • The Moral Fitness of the Atonement
It is written with some learning, with great clearness, with much grace, and the author has happily avoided that prolixity which is the besetting sin of theologians. To all those who watch with interest the widening rings produced by the liberal movement in the waters of opinion, we heartily recommend Mr. Oxenham’s introductory essay. With it the political student may stop short. His theological brother will read on, certainly with interest, and probably with edification.

Pall Mall Gazette

This is the most liberal and generously written treatise on a great doctrinal question which we ever read from the pen of a Roman Catholic. Mr. Oxenham does not revile or misrepresent his opponents, and he has a calm and judicial mind.

British Quarterly Review

We are not aware of any book in which so much information on so important a subject is condensed with equal precision and method. We cannot discover a single point in which his sympathies have misrepresented any opinion held by Fathers, Schoolmen, Reformers, or modern theologians. Mr. Oxenham writes like a scholar and a man of taste, and his readers will find more than one passage of no inconsiderable eloquence.

London Review

It surely cannot lead to anything but good when the central truths of Christianity are discussed with learning and reverence, as is the case in this treatise.


It is no dry, didactic treatise that is brought before us, but one full of illustrations from most varied sources—one unlike any other kindred book it has ever been our fate to meet with.

Church Review

Mr. Oxenham’s is the work of a scholarly divine, and is worthy both of his first training at Oxford, and of the countenance of his eminent Roman Catholic friend, Dr. Dollinger.

Westminster Review

Probably no recent volume of English theology will so well repay careful reading as Mr. Oxenham’s. Full of careful and wide research, masterly in style, accurate in scholarship, and of the soundest order of divinity, it cannot fail to take a high place among the standard authors of the Church.

Church and State Review

Mr. Oxenham has done wisely to choose a method ‘not controversial, but historical,’ tracing the doctrine from the early Fathers down to the present time, instead of plunging into mere polemical discussion. We may add, that the vigor and eloquence of style will commend the work even to non-theological readers.

Union Review

Henry Nutcombe Oxenham (1829–1888) was educated at Balliol College, Oxford. His works include Catholic Eschatology and Universalism, Short Studies in Ecclesiastical History and Biography, and Short Studies: Ethical and Religious.

The Doctrine of the Atonement and Its Historical Evolution

  • Author: Louis Auguste Sabatier
  • Publisher: G. P. Putnam’s Sons
  • Publication Date: 1898
  • Pages: 156

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

“In the Christian consciousness, the forgiveness of sins and the death of Christ are intimately and absolutely related. But when it comes to defining the nature of the connection, explanations differ, theories are found to be contradictory, and the discussion commenced nineteen centuries ago still goes on.” The following treatise is an attempt at a systematic application of the historical method to the study of the doctrine of the atonement, in order to show, by a practical example, the nature and fruitfulness of the method. Sabatier divides his study of the doctrine into two parts: the biblical conceptions of the atonement and the ecclesiastical conceptions.

Louis Auguste Sabatier (1839–1901) was educated at the Universities of Tübingen and Heidelberg. He was appointed professor of reformed dogmatics in the theological faculty of Strasbourg. His works include The Apostle Paul, The Vitality of Christian Dogmas and Their Power of Evolution, and Religions of Authority and the Religion of the Spirit.

Defence of the Catholic Faith Concerning the Satisfaction of Christ Against Faustus Socinus of Siena

  • Author: Hugo Grotius
  • Publisher: Warren F. Draper
  • Publication Date: 1889
  • Pages: 371

Prefixed to Hugo Grotius's study of the atonement is Frank Foster's essay on the history of the Grotian theory and the significant influence it had on atonement theology. “Its orthodox affinities are exhibited by its survival and its final adoption in an orthodox Calvinistic system, and its firm establishment there, though not conclusive proof, is at least such evidence as history can give that it does afford, in spite of frequent denials of the critics, the true mean between the old Calvinistic and the Socinian theories, rejecting the errors of both and combining their truths in a consistent form.”

Grotius begins his study of the atonement by tracing the history of the doctrine and examining various controversies and theories around it. He then explores how God should be considered, whether it was unjust for Christ to be punished for our sins, whether God intended to punish Christ and the nature of satisfaction, the propitiation and reconciliation made by the death of Christ, and more.

Hugo Grotius (1583–1645) was a Dutch jurist, Christian apologist, philosopher, and theologian. His foundational and instrumental treatises and manifestos to international law earned him recognition as “the father of international law.”

The Nature of the Atonement and Its Relation to Remission of Sins and Eternal Life

  • Author: John McLeod Campbell
  • Publisher: Macmillan and Co.
  • Publication Date: 1873
  • Pages: 392

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

The faith of the atonement presupposes the faith of the incarnation. It may be also said historically that the faith of the incarnation has usually had conjoined with it the faith of the atonement. The great question which has divided believers as to these fundamental doctrines of the faith has been the relation in which they stand to each other—which was to be regarded as primary, which secondary? Was an atonement the great necessity in reference to man's salvation, out of which the necessity for the incarnation arose, because a divine savior alone could make an adequate atonement for sin? Or, is the incarnation to be regarded as the primary and highest fact in the history of God's relation to man, in the light of which God's interest in man and purpose for man can alone be truly seen? And is the atonement to be contemplated as taking place in order to the fulfillment of the divine purpose for man which the incarnation reveals? These are the questions John McLeod Campbell explores in his influential Nature of the Atonement.

John McLeod Campbell (1800–1872) was educated at the University of Glasgow and the University of Edinburgh. His works include Thoughts on Revelation, Christ the Bread of Life, and the 2-volume Sermons and Lectures.

A Short History of the Doctrine of the Atonement

  • Author: L. W. Grensted
  • Publisher: Longmans, Green, and Co.
  • Publication Date: 1920
  • Pages: 377

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

This brief history of the doctrine of the atonement is the outcome of a series of lectures given to Grensted's theological students, in the course of which he found the difficulty of referring students to the voluminous amount of sources on the subject. His goal was to fill this gap in the literature on the atonement by collating the numerous sources in a systematic way for quick reference. He traces the doctrine of the atonement from the first two centuries up to the twentieth century.

L. W. Grensted (1884–1964) was lecturer of the history of doctrine at the University of Manchester. His works include The Psychology of Religion, Psychology and the Church, and Psychology and God.

Atonement and Personality

  • Author: R. C. Moberly
  • Publisher: John Murray
  • Publication Date: 1907
  • Pages: 418

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

In Atonement and Personality, R. C. Moberly first examines the ethical conceptions or elements involved in the notion of atonement, conceptions such as punishment, penitence, forgiveness, and vicarious suffering. He then explores the person of the mediator, the obedience of Christ, the Holy Spirit in relation to the being of God, the Holy Spirit in relation to human personality, the church and the sacraments, and more. Moberly asserts that the penitence consummated by Christ upon the Cross, at the cost of a gradual and voluntary dissolution of Himself in death, was the absolute destruction of sin. “For the reality of our own relation to the atonement, which is its consummation in respect to each one of us, everything unreservedly turns upon the reality of our identification, in spirit, with the Spirit of Jesus Christ.”

Canon Moberly has given the world a book which is far above the level even of the best theology. It can only be described as the most impressive English contribution to strictly dogmatic literature made during the last ten or twenty years.

Critical Review of Theological and Philosophical Literature

Robert Campbell Moberly (1845–1903) was educated at New College, Oxford. He was appointed as Regius Professor of pastoral theology at Oxford in 1892. His works include The Incarnation as the Basis of Dogma, Belief in a Personal God, and Reason and Religion.


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