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International Theological Commentary | ITC (27 vols.)

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International in both scope and authorship and theological in approach, Eerdmans' International Theological Commentary moves beyond a descriptive-historical approach to offer a relevant exegesis of the Old Testament text as Holy Scripture. The series aims first, to develop the theological significance of the Old Testament, and second to emphasize the relevance of each book for the life of the church.

Recognizing that in our age especially, a commentary on the Bible must transcend the parochialism of Western civilization, the International Theological Commentary is sensitive to issues that are the special problems of those who live outside the "Christian" West. Authors from more than seventeen countries, representing a wide range of geographical, ideological, and ecclesiastical backgrounds, read the Hebrew text of the Old Testament in the twin contexts of Israel and our present day.

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  • Title: International Theological Commentary
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Volumes: 27
  • Pages: 5,027
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In the Logos edition, Logos Bible Software gives you the tools you need to use these digital volumes effectively and efficiently. With your digital library, you can search for verses, find Scripture references and citations instantly, and perform word studies. Additionally, important terms link to dictionaries, encyclopedias, commentaries, theology texts, and other resources in your library. Perform powerful searches to find exactly what you’re looking for. Take the discussion with you using tablet and mobile apps. With Logos Bible Software, the most efficient and comprehensive research tools are in one place, so you get the most out of your study.

Genesis 1-11: From Eden to Babel

  • Author: Donald E. Gowan
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1988
  • Pages: 125

Genesis 1-11 preserves a unique view of Bible history, tracing the move from Eden, an idyllic world fully in accord with the will of God, to Babel, a fallen world desperately in need of salvation. In this commentary, Donald E. Gowan demonstrates acute sensitivity and insight in focusing on the theological import of these familiar but often puzzling accounts, showing them to be even more crucial for what they say to us about ourselves than for the information they record about individuals and events so very long ago. Addressing such themes as the existence of evil and the threat of chaos, human power and violence, tension between the sexes and the breakdown of the family, he remains ever conscious of the gospel as set forth in Genesis.

Donald E. Gowan is Robert C. Holland Professor of Old Testament at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.

Genesis 12-50: Abraham and All the Families of the Earth

  • Author: J. Gerald Janzen
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1993
  • Pages: 215

J. Gerald Janzen approaches Genesis with the “conviction that the final form of the text is greater than the mere sum of its sources, and that the theological vision which it presents is greater and more profound – more ripe or mature – than can be gained simply from studies of historical events and social situations out of which the text arose.” Janzen has developed a profound theological work in this commentary on Genesis and it compliments the rest of the ITC series as a piece of scholarly excellence.

J. Gerald Janzen is MacAllister-Petticrew Professor of Old Testament at Christian Theological Seminary, Indianapolis.

Exodus: Go Out and Meet God

  • Author: G. W. Ashby
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1998
  • Pages: 146

The book of Exodus is often seen as ancient history, largely irrelevant to most of the modern Western world. This new commentary by Godfrey Ashby attempts specifically to show how this Old Testament book is of continuing significance to readers today. Ashby discusses the crucial importance of the events described in Exodus and their meaning for the Old Testament gospel, and explains why the Exodus event is central to the gospel of Jesus Christ and to the faith of believers in our own age. He also explores the relevance of Exodus for the liberation struggle now taking place throughout the third world.

Ashby's writing is clear, pleasant, approachable, and should appeal to the educated Christian layperson.... He gears his work to an audience which has limited Hebrew knowledge and interest.... A pleasantly readable survey of twentieth century historical critical work related to Exodus and an engaging theological reading of this most defining biblical book.

Hebrew Studies

Ashby is to be commended for his attempt to deal seriously with the theological subject matter of the Bible while simultaneously engaging the legacy of liberation theology.... This is a fine commentary for parishes or for college courses in which contemporary reception of the biblical message is emphasized.

Catholic Biblical Quarterly

Godfrey Ashby is retired as assistant bishop (Anglican) of Georgia, South Africa.

Leviticus: Divine Presence and Community

  • Author: Frank H. Gorman, Jr.
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1997
  • Pages: 163

This commentary by Frank Gorman shows how Leviticus, though focusing largely on matters associated with the Levitical priesthood, is also important to laypeople. Gorman addresses the question of Israelite identity and what it means to be the people of God. Though a careful application of exegesis and exposition, he shows that Leviticus is, foremost, a call to holiness, a weaving together of ritual and ethical issues to provide the community with a means for enacting and actualizing the covenant relationship.

In a concise, clearly written, and convincing commentary, Gorman [on Leviticus] demystifies a biblical book usually under-appreciated misused, and neglected. Theological students, ministers, and laypersons alike will find this book valuable.

Review & Expositor

Frank H. Gorman, Jr. holds the T. W. Phillips Chair of Religious Studies at Bethany College, Bethany, West Virginia.

Numbers: Journeying with God

  • Author: Katherine D. Sakenfeld
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1995
  • Pages: 194

Although little studied by most Christians, the book of Numbers offers a rich storehouse of material for reflection on the relationship between God and the human community. This excellent commentary highlights this theme in the context of interpreting the many strange and obscure stories and laws of Israel’s wilderness journey.

Katharin Doob Sakenfeld is William Albright Eisenberger Professor of Old Testament Literature and Exegesis and director of Ph.D. studies, Princeton Theological Seminary. She is a coeditor of the Oxford Study Bible.

Deuteronomy: Word and Presence

  • Author: Ian Cairns
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1992
  • Pages: 309

In this commentary Ian Cairns presents Deuteronomy as a slowly evolving, complex composite—as legal code, as treaty text or covenant, as Moses’ farewell speech, and as the final volume of the Pentateuch. Despite Deuteronomy’s structural complexity, however, Cairns shows how the theme “Word and Presence” permeates the entire book: God is the living Presence who can be encountered and known through his word addressed to each generation in turn. This commentary is unique in its emphasis on the theology of Deuteronomy (e.g., law as “humane instruction”) as well as in its modern applications and illustrations from non-Western cultures.

Ian Cairns, a native of New Zealand, taught theology in Indonesia for twenty years. Since returning to New Zealand in 1980 he has served as a parish minister and as a lecturer in biblical studies. He has published five books in Indonesian, including a commentary on Deuteronomy.

Joshua: Inheriting the Land

  • Author: E. John Hamlin
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1983
  • Pages: 207

In keeping with the international character of the series, E. John Hamlin’s commentary on Joshua pays more than usual attention to the fulfillment of the third part of God’s promise to Abraham, “By you all the nations of the earth shall bless themselves,” as well as to the roles played by non-Israelites such as Rahab and the Gibeonites. Hamlin also takes full account of issues such as war and liberation, land distribution and management, and personal fulfillment.

Among the important theological insights revealed in this commentary are God’s faithfulness to his oppressed people, the importance of land to the covenantal idea, the establishment of a new society based on justice, freedom, and loyalty and secured through covenant teaching and covenant bonding, and kingdom struggles leading to kingdom victory and pointing to God’s final victory.

E. John Hamlin is professor emeritus of Old Testament at McGilvary Faculty of Theology, Payap Univeristy, Chiang Mai, Thailand. He has spent most of his life teaching in China, Thailand, and Singapore; his other books include God and the World of Nations and the ITC volume on Joshua.

Judges: At Risk in the Promised Land

  • Author: E. John Hamlin
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1990
  • Pages: 182

This theological treatment of the Book of Judges is fresh, original, imaginative, scholarly, and relevant.

In his commentary E. John Hamlin pays careful attention to the structure and meaning of the text of Judges, and he elucidates the “risk” that Israel faced in the Promised Land—the risk of living among the “Canaanites,” of adopting their ungodly practices and their way of organizing society (the way of death). Hamlin’s characterizations of the various liberator judges are particularly thought-provoking.

Each chapter concludes with “Perspectives” on the text—reflections on the ancient context of the Judges accounts, insights from the Asian cultures among which Hamlin has lived and worked, and applications to modern situations.

E. John Hamlin is professor emeritus of Old Testament at McGilvary Faculty of Theology, Payap Univeristy, Chiang Mai, Thailand. He has spent most of his life teaching in China, Thailand, and Singapore; his other books include God and the World of Nations and the ITC volume on Joshua.

Ruth: Surely There Is a Future

  • Author: E. John Hamlin
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1996
  • Pages: 82

The book of Ruth, set in the period of the judges, is a beautiful story of the love, covenant loyalty, and daring initiative of two impoverished widows. Together with a generous open-hearted man, they demonstrate the truth of Proverbs 23:18 that applies to individuals, families, communities, and nations: “Surely there is a future, and your hope will not be cut off.” In this excellent commentary E. John Hamlin approaches the book of Ruth as literature, as history, as part of the canon, and as truth-telling story.

This lively treatment of Ruth strikes an ideal balance between informed commentary and application to modern life. The result is a readable, refreshing powerful presentation of Ruth's message.

—Robert. L. Hubbard, Jr., North Park Theological Seminary

E. John Hamlin is professor emeritus of Old Testament at McGilvary Faculty of Theology, Payap Univeristy, Chiang Mai, Thailand. He has spent most of his life teaching in China, Thailand, and Singapore; his other books include God and the World of Nations and the ITC volume on Joshua.

1 & 2 Samuel: Let Us Be like the Nations

  • Author: Gnana Robinson
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1993
  • Pages: 289

In this commentary Ghana Robinson interprets the text of 1 and 2 Samuel in its religio-cultural context, highlighting the dangers involved in a conformist approach to life, approaching the text from the perspective of justice for the poor and oppressed, and offering a new explanation of the Hebrew word dabhar.

Gnana Robinson is principal of United Theological College, Bangalore, India. From 1987 to 1992 he served as guest professor of ecumenical issues at the Predigerseminar in Soest, Westfalen, Germany. He has written numerous books in Tamil and English.

1 Kings: Nations under God

  • Author: Gene Rice
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1990
  • Pages: 198

The book of 1 Kings tells of God’s covenant people wrestling with the myriad problems of political existence from the last days of David to the time of Jehoshaphat and Ahaziah during the divided monarchy. Recounting the past especially in light of the First and Second Commandments, 1 Kings shows how Israel’s history is related to their morality, warns of the danger of a divided heart, calls for obedience to God’s commandments, and summons the people to repentance and reform.

It is out of these concerns for ancient Israel, Rice contends, that 1 Kings speaks to the present: it prods us to identify the equivalent of Canaanite religion in our own society, to use Israel’s experience in political issues as a mirror in which to evaluate our own efforts, and to look for God’s presence in the arena of public life and service. Indeed, Rice argues, the basic affirmation of 1 Kings is that all nations, not just Israel, are “under God”.

Gene Rice is professor of Old Testament literature and language at Howard University School of Divinity, Washington, D.C., and the author of numerous scholarly articles. This is his first book.

Ezra & Nehemiah: Israel Alive Again

  • Author: Fredrick Carlson Holmgren
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1987
  • Pages: 162

When the Jews returned to Israel from captivity in Babylon in the 6th and 5th centuries B.C. they faced many hardships. Despite these struggles, their Ezra and Nehemiah believed that God was working with them to accomplish his purpose, which was to restore a faithful community.

Israel Alive Again interprets the books of Ezra and Nehemiah in the context of the Hebrew Bible, exploring the theological meanings of these often slighted books, and emphasizing their relevance for the church today. Like the other commentaries in the series, Israel Alive Again is intended for the layperson, student, and pastor. Its theological exposition makes it valuable to scholars as well.

Fredrick Carlson Holmgren is Research Professor of Old Testament at North Park Theological Seminary in Chicago, Illinois.

Nahum, Obadiah, Esther: Israel among the Nations

  • Authors: Richard J. Coggins, S. Paul Re'Emi
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1985
  • Pages: 140

This commentary concerns writings which emerged from three successive stages in Judah’s decline and captivity—the century of fear engendered by the Assyrian menace (addressed in Nahum), the shock and disorientation that followed the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem (Obadiah), and the necessary dilemma of adapting yet maintaining their uniqueness in an alien setting (Esther). All three books reflect the efforts to maintain faith despite continued assaults on traditional views of the nature of God and the Covenant.

Richard J. Coggins, the author of the commentaries on Nahum and Obadiah, is Senior Lecturer in Old Testament Studies at Kings College, London.

S. Paul Re’emi is a scholar of both German and French universities who served for many years as presbyter of the Church of Scotland in Israel.

The Vitality of Worship: A Commentary on the Book of Psalms

  • Author: Robert Davidson
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1998
  • Pages: 484

The Psalms have been central to Jewish and Christian tradition and spirituality across the centuries. In them people of all times and places have found echoes of their own experiences, whether of praise or perplexity, certainty or doubt, quiet assurance or agonized questioning. This commentary on the book of Psalms by Robert Davidson seeks to show how a knowledge of the place the Psalms originally had in the worship of ancient Israel enables them to come alive in worship within believing communities today.

Taking primarily a theological approach to the Psalms, Davidson looks at each numbered Psalm in turn, discussing its relationship to the other Psalms, its message according to its original context, and its enduring theological significance. Davidson’s special concern to highlight the continuing relevance of the Psalms for worship—in ancient times and now. According to Davidson, when we recognize in the Psalms their reflections of our own life experiences, they can be significantly more helpful to our private spiritual lives and our public worship than many of the hymnbooks currently being used.

In drawing on contemporary worship sources, both Jewish and Christian, this excellent commentary will appeal as much to general readers and worship leaders as to scholars, students, and pastors.

Truly a magnum opus...Davidson's [work on Psalms] cross references from one psalm to another will greatly help readers who are simply looking up a particular psalms. A thoroughly theological volume, always based on good critical study.

—George A. F. Knight

Robert Davidson is Professor emeritus of Old Testament and literature at the University of Glasgow in Scotland.

Proverbs and Ecclesiastes: Who Knows What Is Good?

  • Author: Kathleen A. Farmer
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1991
  • Pages: 213

The “wise” of ancient Israel were concerned primarily with the nature of goodness and the character of faith: What is “good” for humankind, and how should they live their brief lives on earth? Although the books of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes are generally regarded as two distinctly different types of works, Kathleen A. Farmer demonstrates that they belong together, each to be read in the light of the other as guides that enable and encourage us to act in life-enhancing ways which are fully in accord with the teaching of the Lord.

Kathleen A. Farmer is professor of Old Testament at United Theological Seminary in Dayton, Ohio. Her publications include Isaiah in the Bible Lives of Faith Series.

Songs of Songs & Jonah: Revelation of God

  • Authors: George A. F. Knight, Friedemann W. Golka
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1988
  • Pages: 135

With due attention to historical and literary issues, the authors explore the theological contributions of two books unique among the Old Testament canon. Offering fresh perspectives for the book’s message and setting, George A. F. Knight depicts The Song of Songs as a book about God and his plan of redemption for the world—a revelation of the love of God. Friedemann W. Golka presents the book of Jonah as a masterpiece of Hebrew narrative art, a multidimensional account which through skillful use of irony and satire demonstrates the divine privilege of mercy for all living beings.

George A. F. Knight has taught Old Testament studies and Semitic languages in schools around the world and has served as coeditor of the International Theological Commentary series.

Friedemann W. Golka is Lecturer in Theology (Old Testament) at the University of Exeter. The son of a Pastor in the German Confessing Church, he has long had an interest in Jewish-Christian dialogue.

Isaiah 1-39: The Lord Is Savior: Faith in National Crisis

  • Author: Samuel H. Widyapranawa
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1990
  • Pages: 266

This commentary presents an Indonesian theologian’s contemporary interpretation of Isaiah 1-39. According to S. H. Widyapranawa, in Isaiah we see the dynamics of faith in a turbulent world and we hear the prophetic admonition to uphold faith in the Lord and to oppose secularism, false prophecies, and sinful cultic practices. Indeed, this teaching from the eighth century B.C. is of paramount importance for the preaching of God’s truth and justice in today’s world.

S. H. Widyapranawa is professor of Old Testament at Duta Wacana United Theological College, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. He has already published three Indonesian commentaries on Isaiah as well as a book entitled The Growing Seed.

Isaiah 40-55: Servant Theology

  • Author: George A. F. Knight
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1984
  • Pages: 204

“George Knight has produced a very fluent and readable commentary on these important chapters of the book of Isaiah, which, more than any other part of the Old Testament, anticipate the Cross of Christ. By concentrating on the theological issues that are raised and by adopting a non-technical style of presentation, Knight introduces the reader to some of the leading motifs of biblical theology… In view of the complex questions which relate to the structure and unity of the book of Isaiah, I believe that all who share an evangelical faith and who have regard for the theological importance of the Old Testament will find this commentary rewarding and enriching.”

—R.E. Clements, King’s College, University of London.

George A. F. Knight has taught Old Testament studies and Semitic languages in schools around the world and has served as coeditor of the International Theological Commentary series.

Isaiah 56-66: The New Israel

  • Author: George A. F. Knight
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1985
  • Pages: 126

“ ‘Isaiah’ provides us with a picture,” writes George A.F. Knight, “a pattern of revelation, hewn out of the facts of history.” In this book, which serves as a sequel to the author’s Servant Theology (the International Theological Commentary on Isaiah 40-55) with appropriate attention to significant critical issues.

Emphasizing Israel as “a light to the nations,” Knight is concerned throughout with the theological issues of contemporary, international scope. He sees Isaiah as addressed to the social, historical situation not only of its own day but of this day as well, with significance for Jews and Muslims as well as Christians—“a book meant for all who come after.”

George A. F. Knight has taught Old Testament studies and Semitic languages in schools around the world and has served as coeditor of the International Theological Commentary series.

Amos & Lamentations: God's People in Crisis

  • Authors: Robert Martin-Achard, S. Paul Re’emi
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1984
  • Pages: 134

“Here in a straightforward and readable way S. Paul Re’emi takes us into the experience of exile in Lamentations, while Robert Martin-Achard takes us behind that moment into Amos’s confrontations with Israel which preceded her exile. The commentaries enable the reader to appreciate much of the prayer and the challenge that these two books expressed, and encourage us to see them as not merely ancient texts but theological resources for the modern world.”

—John Goldingay, St. John’s College, Nottingham

S. Paul Re’emi is a scholar of both German and French universities who served for many years as presbyter of the Church of Scotland in Israel.

Robert Martin-Achard is Professor of Old Testament at the University of Geneva, Switzerland.

Ezekiel: A New Heart

  • Authors: Bruce Vawter, Leslie J. Hoppe
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1991
  • Pages: 218

The prophet Ezekiel speaks passionately of God’s fidelity even in the face of his people’s infidelity, defending the destruction of Jerusalem as God’s judgment while promising a new experience of the divine presence that will bring with it “a new heart” for God’s people. Bruce Vawter and Leslie J. Hoppe illuminate the profound theological themes of Ezekiel, making him accessible to people today by stressing his proclamations of judgment and salvation as vital words for the people of God in every age.

Bruce Vawter was, until his death, Chairman of the Department of Religious Studies at DePaul University, Chicago. He was the author of several books, including On Genesis.

Leslie J. Hoppe is associate professor of Old Testament and Chairperson of the Biblical Literature and Languages Department at Catholic Theological Union, Chicago. He is the author of Being Poor: A Biblical Study.

Daniel: Signs and Wonders

  • Author: Robert A. Anderson
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1984
  • Pages: 158

From start to finish, Robert A. Anderson’s commentary depicts Daniel as an exemplar of loyalty to God, a faithful Jew in an alien culture. As such Daniel is a source of inspiration for those who find themselves in parallel circumstances—beset by the disadvantages of their subservient position, faced with the threat of dire physical suffering and even death, and enticed to apostasy. Like Joseph in Egypt, however, Daniel does not withdraw from the world but participates in it. And through prayer, adherence to Torah, and trust in his God—who is in fact the God of the world—Daniel perseveres and is enabled to triumph over the world.

Robert A. Anderson is Professor of Old Testament Studies, Ormand College, University of Melbourne. He wrote Signs and Wonders while serving as Visiting Scholar at the Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies.

Hosea: Grace Abounding

  • Author: H. D. Beeby
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1989
  • Pages: 189

Centering on the “knowledge of God” and the ultimate painful, paradoxical triumph of God’s grace, the book of Hosea is one of ambivalence and redemption. The redemptive message of Hosea is underscored by H. D. Beeby’s canonical and Christological interpretation. Beeby stresses that the true context of the book is much wider than the eighth century B.C.; Hosea must continually be heard against the background of and in response to the reader’s own time. This commentary makes Hosea’s message available today to all who struggle with questions of gospel and culture, contextualization, idolatry, church and state, and interfaith dialogue.

H. D. Beeby was for many years Professor of Old Testament at Tainan Theological College in Taiwan and, more recently, Lecturer in Old Testament Studies at Selly Oak Colleges in England.

Joel & Malachi: A Promise of Hope-- A Call to Obedience

  • Authors: Graham S. Ogden, Richard R. Deutsch
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1987
  • Pages: 120

The book of Joel is one of the Old Testament prophetic books, but it also has a clear and close association with lament literature. Graham Ogden takes seriously the book’s lament setting, exegeting it entirely from within that framework. In his commentary on the book of Malachi, Richard Deutsch examines the religious, moral, and social aspects of the early postexilic Jewish community that the prophet was addressing in this brief book.

Graham S. Ogden was Professor of Old Testament and Hebrew in Taiwan Theological College for seven years before accepting an appointment as Translations Consultant with the United Bible Societies in Taiwan.

Richard R. Deutsch, of Austrian and Jewish origin, taught for many years at Chung Chi College, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. He is currently Secretary for Chinese Churches in Asia for the Basel Mission in Switzerland.

Micah: Justice and Loyalty

  • Author: Juan I. Alfaro
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1989
  • Pages: 85

As the most forceful biblical proponent of the ideals of justice, loyalty, and kindness, Micah holds special appeal for those who are concerned about the powerlessness of the poor and humble. In this commentary Juan Alfaro examines the prophecies of Micah as they address both the internal and the external crises that faced Judah in the eighth century B.C. Throughout his exposition Alfaro stresses that Micah does not belong to a dead past; rather, Micah’s challenging message of judgment and hope calls for change and conversion in our world today.

Juan I. Alfaro is Director of the Pastoral Institute of the Mexican American Cultural Center in San Antonio, Texas. He also teaches at Incarnate Word College Pastoral Institute and at the Oblate School of Theology in San Antonio.

Habakkuk and Zephaniah: Wrath and Mercy

  • Author: Mária Eszenyei Széles
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1987
  • Pages: 118

Neither Habakkuk nor Zephaniah is very well known or understood by our generation. These Old Testament prophets, who were contemporary with Jeremiah, interpreted events leading up to the total destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonian “king of kings and lord of lords,” in 597 and 587 B.C. Writing from within a Socialist society, Mária Eszenyei Széles offers a unique perspective on Habakkuk and Zephaniah—a profoundly moving interpretation of the mystery of God’s apparent absence or weakness when his own people meet with intolerable suffering at the hands of a cruel totalitarian regime.

Mária Eszenyei Széles is Professor of Old Testament at the United Protestant Theological Seminary, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Haggai & Zechariah: Rebuilding with Hope

  • Author: Carroll Stuhlmueller
  • Publisher: Eerdmans
  • Publication Date: 1988
  • Pages: 165

The collected proclamations ascribed to two little-known post-exilic prophets, Haggai and Zechariah, represent a bridge between the traditions of classical Israelite religion and the dramatic changes essential to the preservation of the fragile Restoration community. Carroll Stuhlmueller’s section-by-section, verse-by-verse analysis and exposition focus on the prophetic word as addressed not only to Israel in this “time of small beginnings” but also to the Church today. His primary concern is the theological message of the prophets, yet ever with an eye toward their historical context, literary form, and cultural setting.


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