George Carraway suggests that Paul meant to refer to Jesus as God in Romans 9:5, and that the apostle’s statement is not out of place in the given how Romans 9–11 unfolds. He addresses objections to this conclusion, responding to those who claim that a monotheist such as Paul would not refer to Jesus as God, and to those who point out that Paul does not elsewhere identify Jesus as God. After demonstrating that there is a connection between Romans 9:5 and the remainder of Romans 9–11, the argument continues to tie Paul’s monotheistic statements regarding the one God of both Jews and gentiles in Romans 3 to the concept of the one Lord of all in Romans 10:5-13. Carraway concludes that the redeemer from Zion in 11:25–27 is Christ, and is the same as the Christ from Israel in 9:5.
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Carraway has pointed the way forward toward resolving one of the more difficult exegetical problems in the Pauline corpus . . . he has reset the agenda for the debate.
—James C. Miller, Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society