Philip Schaff was one of the leading historians of the nineteenth century, and one of the most public theologians and prominent intellectuals of his time. Schaff played a foundational role in the development of American Protestantism, and gained wide recognition as one of the leading experts on matters of theology, history, and biblical studies. He was a widely respected scholar and a prolific writer, and his works were influential in both Europe and America.
In addition to writing a mammoth church history, editing what has become the standard work on the Early Church Fathers, and editing the 13-volume Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Schaff wrote more than twenty other works, now included in this collection. The Philip Schaff Collection includes Schaff's 3-volume Creeds of Christendom, his 2-volume Theological Propædeutic, and voluminous works on church history, literature, and textual criticism. This collection also includes a travel narrative from Schaff's extensive travels in the Middle East and a biographical volume on Philip Schaff written by his son, David S. Schaff.
What's more, with Logos, these important works by Philip Schaff are easier to read than ever! The Scripture texts in Schaff's works on the Bible and textual criticism are linked to your Greek and Hebrew texts and English translations. And your digital library gives you the ease and flexibility to read Schaff alongside the primary texts of the key figures in church history, such as Thomas Aquinas,John Calvin,Jonathan Edwards, and the Church Fathers.
Schaff's 3-volume Creeds of Christendom
The biography of Philip Schaff written by his son, David S. Schaff
Schaff's lecture on slavery, delivered at the beginning of the Civil War in the United States
The travel log of Schaff's journeys through the Middle East
A collection of essays on Renan's Vie de Jesus, co-authored with M. Napoleon Roussel
In the development of the discipline of church history in the United States, few scholars played a more important role than the Swiss-born, German-educated immigrant Philip Schaff. His model of careful, accurate, comprehensive, and irenic scholarship . . . remains worthy of admiration and emulation.
—R. Graham, Professor of American Church History, North Park Theological Seminary
No scholar of his generation has interested me so much. He was broad, powerful, a man of great genius.
Philip Schaff wanted to be remembered as a Christian scholar, and he pursued this scholarship in the context of his grand and optimistic ecumenical vision . . . Schaff was, in his own words, an 'inveterate hoper.
In The Creeds of Christendom, Philip Schaff offers a critical analysis of the most important and fully developed expressions of faith. Through the words of the creeds, Schaff explains that honest controversy can produce lasting union, and that the theological controversies of the historic church have made the present church stronger. Schaff writes these volumes for a church divided, and begs a multitude of denominations to explore their common origins and common beliefs.
Volume 1 explores the ecumenical creeds, the creeds of the Greek Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, as well as the numerous confessions of the Protestant Church. He offers a history of not only well-known confessions, such as the Belgic Confession, but also a history of the numerous lesser-known confessions.
In all, this volume contains a history of 118 creeds and confessions and a sweeping view of the church's attempt to articulate its doctrine and define matters of faith and belief in light of cultural challenges and theological controversy.
The Creeds of Christendom, Vol. 2: The Greek and Latin Creeds
Volume 2 of The Creeds of Christendom contains the confessions found in Scripture, including those by Peter, Thomas, and others. Using Scriptural accounts and apostolic testimony, Schaff explores the relationship between the Bible and the early creeds. He also discusses at length the ecumenical creeds of the Ante-Nicene and Nicene periods, such as the Apostles Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed, as well as various rules of faith and early baptismal creeds. The personal confessions of Ignatius, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Origin, Cyril, and others are discussed.
The second half of this volume is devoted to a detailed discussion of the important creeds of the Roman Catholic Church, including more than 150 pages on the Council of Trent and the various papal encyclicals of the nineteenth century.
The Creeds of Christendom, Vol. 3: Creeds of the Evangelical Protestant Churches
The third and final volume of The Creeds of Christendom discusses the creeds and confessions of the Lutheran Churches and Reformed Churches in the years following the Reformation. He also outlines the emerging confessions of various denominations in North America, such as the Presbyterian Church, the Baptist Church, and the Congregational Confessions. In this volume, Schaff also outlines the history of the Augsburg Confession, the Helvetic Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, the Belgic Confession, the Canons of Dordt, the Scottish Confession, and dozens of other Protestant confessions.
In his 2-volume Theological Propædeutic, Schaff outlines for his students the various sub-disciplines of theology and the methods of theology study. This Propædeutic is derived from Schaff's classroom lectures, and refined by repeated deliveries and substantial student commentary. Schaff's clear style makes these volumes accessible and readable for both Schaff's students and for a wider audience.
Volume 1 of the Theological Propædeutic outlines the nature of religion and defines the task of theology and its relationship to the Bible. He devotes special attention to the rise of the historical-critical method and the prominence of textual criticism in the nineteenth century.
Volume 2 of Schaff's Theological Propædeutic covers historical theology and importance of the study of history, including patristic literature, for which Schaff is well-known. The second half of this volume is devoted to systematic and practical theology, including apologetics, dogmatics, ethics, preaching, and missions.
The Principle of Protestantism as Related to the Present State of the Church
Author: Philip Schaff
Publisher: Publication Office of the German Reformed Church
The Principle of Protestantism as Related to the Present State of the Church grew out of Schaff's inaugural address delivered at Reading, Pennsylvania on October 25, 1844. This volume outlines the goals and intentions of Protestantism—both theologically and culturally—in the context of particular nineteenth century challenges. He describes the relationship of Protestantism to the Roman Catholic Church, as well as rationalism, realism, and the emergence of historical understanding. Schaff's call for reconciliation in this volume between Roman Catholics and Protestants ignited fierce controversy.
A Companion to the Greek Testament and the English Version
Philip Schaff called the Bible "the greatest literary treasure of Christendom, and worthy of all labor and study." He took the increased interest in the field of biblical study during the nineteenth century as a sign of encouragement. This volume reflects on the text of the Bible in light of renewed scholarly and lay interest in the Bible. It contains a short manual on textual criticism for English readers, as well as an introduction to languages and dialects, the various manuscripts, the Latin and Syriac versions of the New Testament, and the merits of the King James Version and the Revised Version.
St. Chrysostom and St. Augustine are towering figures in the history of the church—Chrysostom the greatest of the Greek Fathers and Augustine the greatest of the Latin Fathers. Their memory can never die, says Schaff, because they left their mark on every page of church history, and their teaching and example will continue to prepare preachers and encourage believers.
The first half of this volume is devoted to the life of Chrysostom, including the formative events of his childhood, his writings, his theology, and his preaching. The second half of the volume documents the life of Augustine, his relationship to the Manicheans, his time in Rome and relationship with Ambrose, his writings, and his influence in the history of the church.
The Person of Christ: The Perfection of His Humanity Viewed as a Proof of His Divinity
"Who do you say that I am?" The question Jesus asked of his disciples deserves to be answered again today, because the question of Christ is the question of Christianity. It is the question of the church, which rests on him, the rock. It is the question of history, which revolves around him.
The object of this book is to show that the perfection of Christ's humanity offers proof of his divinity. The Person of Christ is part theology, part history. It concludes with a lengthy appendix—more than 100 pages—which contains testimony of Christ throughout history from figures as diverse as the Centurion on the Cross, Josephus, Tacitus, Spinoza, and Rousseau.
The Life of Philip Schaff, In Part Autobiographical
Philip Schaff was born in Switzerland and received theological and historical training in Germany, yet seamlessly adapted himself to American institutions and the scholarly community of the nineteenth century. He quickly acquired a position of larger public notice than perhaps any other theologian of his era.
This book, compiled by his son, David S. Schaff, uses many of Schaff's writings, letters, and diary entries to tell the story of Schaff's life and thought. The narrative describes the movements with which Schaff identified, his extensive travels throughout Europe, America, and the Middle East, his role in producing a revised version of the English Bible, his work at Union Theological Seminary, and the lessons from his life for future generations.
This biography concludes with a detailed index to the significant events and people of Schaff's life.
This monograph, written during the centennial celebration of the United States Constitution, charts the historical relationship between church and state. Schaff writes from the unique position of a theologian and a historian who has lived on both sides of the Atlantic. Citing examples from Presidential addresses, court cases, and European observers such as Alexis de Tocqueville, Philip Schaff describes the genesis and growth of American Christianity and the unique historical context from which it sprang. He also outlines its historical connection with the church in Europe, and offers possibilities for the American church's future mission within this unique political climate.
The Renaissance: The Revival of Learning and Art in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries
The Renaissance was one of the most transformative periods in history. Within the span of a few decades the arts flourished, and individuals began to explore new possibilities for creativity and expression.
In this short volume, Philip Schaff documents the origins of the Renaissance, the character of its key thinkers, and its impact on the church. He chronicles the lives of writers such as Dante and artists such as Raphael and Michelangelo. Schaff also compares the Renaissance to other transformative periods in the church's history, such as the Reformation, and gives a history of the Roman Catholic Church throughout both periods.
The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, or the Oldest Church Manual, the Didache and Kindred Documents
Since its rediscovery in 1873, the Didache has secured its place among the history of the Church Fathers, and in the history of the New Testament canon. It is one of the oldest and most detailed records of the worship and discipline of the Early Church, and it fills the gap between the Apostolic age and the Church of the second century, and sheds light upon questions of doctrine, worship, and discipline.
Shortly after Schaff's volume on Apostolic Christianity in his multi-volume History of the Christian Church was published, he acquired the newly published Didache. Originally intended to supplement Volume 1 of his History with notes on the Didache, he decided instead to expand his study on the work into a stand-alone book.
This volume on the Didache includes the full text, with translation, notes, and exposition, amounting to a detailed history of the period between A. D. 70 and A. D. 150. It also includes an extensive bibliography of all literature to date.
Through Bible Lands: Notes of Travel in Egypt, the Desert, and Palestine
Philip Schaff traveled extensively throughout his lifetime. One of his longest and most prominent trips took him through Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Cyprus, and Athens during the first half of 1877. He journeyed down the Nile, walked through the Sinai wilderness, and visited the key cities in Palestine, and throughout his travels, related his experiences to friends and colleagues at home.
This volume provides an illuminating look at a rarely-visited culture by one of America's most prominent and public nineteenth century biblical scholars. Schaff aims to inspire and renew interest in the study of the Bible, and revive interest in Christianity by narrating the people and places and who gave rise to its birth. He gives readers a clear idea of the cultures in which he traveled through a narrative of what he saw and experienced.
Slavery incited tension, division, and eventually for the United States, a full-fledged Civil War. What does the Bible say about slavery? How was slavery perceived in Greek and Roman culture? Can the New Testament be used to legitimize slavery? Such questions split the United States as much as they split churches, as theology became twisted to justify oppression.
In Slavery and the Bible: A Tract for the Times, Schaff responded to urgent requests for clarification and advice. The volume is derived from a sermon delivered at the Lutheran Church in Hagerstown, Maryland in the early days of the United States Civil War.
America: A Sketch of the Political, Social, and Religious Character of the United States
Many European thinkers wrote observations of America during the first half of the eighteenth century. There was much to be intrigued about the early republic, and numerous intellectuals weighed in. Although Tocqueville's account has become the most famous, Schaff's reflections are no less important for the church in America, because Schaff wrote from the unique perspective of a historian and theologian.
These lectures on America were first delivered in Prussia in March of 1854. In them, he defends the cause of America against those who make erroneous claims against it, yet he condemns slavery, materialism, radicalism, and sectarianism as "the chief deformities of the United States." In the end, he calls the churches in Europe and America to link themselves together for the benefit of both.
History of the Apostolic Church: With a General Introduction to Church History
Originally written in German, Schaff wrote this English translation in 1853 for a broader audience at the request of many of his colleagues on both sides of the Atlantic. This introduction to church history related history to theology, worship, and morality. He also explores the sources of knowledge and the usefulness of church history for contemporary readers. Schaff not only displays his acquaintance with church historians from previous eras, but also synthesizes previous perspectives from the church's earlier centuries.
The second half of this volume explores the history of the Apostolic Church, spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire, the early conceptions of Christianity and morality, spiritual gifts, and the exercise of church discipline.
In addition to numerous volumes on history, theology, and the Bible, Schaff also wrote at length on literature and poetry, especially in relation to biblical literature. Literature and Poetry explores the English language, Hebrew and Greek words, biblical poetry, the Psalms, and the literature of key figures in church history. In particular, Schaff devotes nearly 200 pages to the life and literature of Dante Alighieri. Schaff also comments on numerous songs and hymns.
For years, German universities remained the center of biblical and theological scholarship. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Schaff notes, the universities in German "furnish, to a great extent . . . the ideas and principles of modern history." To grasp intellectual history, the history of the church, and biblical and theological studies, we must first understand the nature and purpose of German scholarship.
Germany, Its Universities, Theology and Religion introduces readers to the universities in German, including the biblical and theological departments of nine German universities. Schaff describes the relationship between church and state in Germany, the nature of religious freedom, and Lutheranism in Germany.
He concludes with nearly 200 pages of biographical material on seventeen theologians, including Neander, Herzog, Lange, and Olshausen.
The Romance of M. Renan, and the Christ of the Gospels: Three Essays
Ernest Renan was a popular writer and philosopher during the nineteenth century whose bestselling work was the Vie de Jesus (Life of Jesus), in which he argued that the life of Christ should be subject to the same scrutiny as anyone else. Renan admitted the early origins and authenticity of the Gospels, yet rejected the miracles, and reduces the narratives to mythical legends.
To address this theological and historical deficiency, Philip Schaff and M. Napoleon Roussel published this collection of essays which explain the divinity, person, and mission of Jesus Christ. Schaff affirms the historic reliability of the Gospels in the face of widespread increasing skepticism.
In The Life and Labors of St. Augustine, Schaff offers an introduction to the life and thought of Augustine for general readers. This biographical account traces the key events of Augustine's life, including his time among the Manicheans, his encounters with Ambrose, his study of Plato and Paul, and his writings. Schaff gives a condensed picture of the life of Augustine and his historical and theological place among the Church Fathers. He also charts Augustine's influence throughout church history, and his influence on the theologians of the Reformation in particular.
Philip Schaff was born on January 1, 1819 in Chur, Switzerland. He was educated in Germany at Tübingen, Halle, and Berlin, where he studied under August Neander. In 1843, moved to America and became professor of church history and biblical literature at the German Reformed Theological Seminary in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania.
During this time, he edited a hymnal, worked on the liturgy in the German Reformed Church, and edited a translation of the Heidelberg Catechism. The English translation of his History of the Apostolic Church appeared in 1853. Schaff remained at Mercersburg until 1863, when the Civil War forced the seminary to close.
In 1870, Schaff became a professor at Union Theological Seminary. During his tenure there, he held the chair of theological encyclopedia and Christian symbolism, the chair of Hebrew and cognate languages, the chair of sacred literature, and the chair of church history. He also served on the committee that translated the American Standard Version.