In this revealing course, Dr. Michael Heiser illuminates the Old Testament basis for the Christian Godhead. Dr. Heiser, academic editor at Logos Bible Software, reveals how God was cast as more than one person in the Old Testament, and how New Testament writers applied those descriptions to Jesus. Dive into Old Testament theology and powerful descriptions of God, and discover foundational truths for apologetics and Jewish evangelism. Dr. Heiser holds a PhD in Hebrew Bible and Semitic languages, making him an excellent Old Testament guide.
Upon successful completion you should be able to:
- Define the term “monotheism” in relation to the Old Testament
- Identify the various meanings of the word elohim in Old Testament usage
- Explain how Jewish monotheism does not contradict belief in a Godhead
- List three non-canonical Jewish writings that demonstrate belief in a Godhead
- Evaluate and refute objections to the deity of Jesus Christ made by Judaism and Jehovah’s Witnesses
Unit 1: How Do I Respond to a Jewish Objection to the Christian Trinity?
- The Core Beliefs of Judaism
- Accessing and Using Hebrew Dictionaries
- The First Problem with Understanding Monotheism
- Comparing English Translations with the Text Comparison Tool
- The Second Problem with Understanding Monotheism
- Searching English Bibles for the Words of Christ
- Understanding Elohim and the Implications for the Godhead
Unit 2: What Is Yahweh’s Council?
- The Divine Council in Psalm 82
- The Role of the Divine Council
- Using the NET Bible Notes to Find Manuscript Differences
- Quiz Unit 1–2
Unit 3: Doesn’t the Old Testament Deny the Existence of Other Gods?
- No God Besides Yahweh
- Searching for Different Forms of a Phrase from Isaiah 47:8
- The Logic of Idolatry in the Ancient World
- Idols in Psalm 115
- Idols in 1 Corinthians 8
- “Elemental Spirits” in Galatians 4
- Using the BDAG Greek Lexicon to Determine a Word’s Meaning
- Quiz – Unit 3
Unit 4: Aren’t the Host of Heaven Just Celestial Objects Rather Than Actual Beings?
- The “Host of Heaven” in the Old Testament
- Summary of Divine Plurality in the Old Testament
Unit 5: What Other Being Was Identified with Yahweh?
- The Godhead in Ancient Judaism
- The Biblical Evidence for Two Powers in Heaven
- The Second Yahweh of the Old Testament
- Yahweh and the Angel of Yahweh
- Yahweh and “The Word”
- Yahweh and the “Cloud Rider”
- Quiz – Unit 4–5
- Midterm Exam
Unit 6: Did Jews Really Believe in Two Powers?
- The Jewish Belief in a Second Yahweh Figure
- Jewish Interpretations of the Second Power: Exalted Humans
- Jewish Interpretations of the Second Power: Important Angels
- Finding and Understanding Early Jewish Writings
- Jewish Interpretations of the Second Power: The Logos
- Quiz – Unit 6
Unit 7: How Did the New Testament Writers Understand the Second Yahweh Figure?
- The Second Yahweh and “The Word”
- The Second Yahweh and “The Angel”
- The Second Yahweh and “The Name”
- Finding Where “The Name” Refers to God
- The Second Yahweh and the “Rider on the Clouds”
- Jesus as the Second Yahweh
Unit 8: How Does the Language of Divine Plurality Relate to Jesus as God’s “Only Begotten” Son?
- Jesus as God’s “Only Begotten” Son
- Understanding the Greek Term Monogenēs
- Using the Bible Word Study to Explore the Meaning of Monogenēs
- Quiz – Unit 7–8
Unit 9: How Did New Testament Writers Express Belief that Jesus Was Unique among the Sons of God?
- Review of Divine Plurality in Psalm 82
- Jesus’ Quotation of Psalm 82:6 in John 10:34
- Interpreting Psalm 82:6 in John 10:34 (Part One)
- Interpreting Psalm 82:6 in John 10:34 (Part Two)
- Creating Collections of Commentaries to Study Psalm 82
- Understanding Jesus’ Use of Psalm 82:6 in John 10:34
- Quiz – Unit 9
Unit 10: Can Seeds of a Christian Trinity Be Found in the Old Testament?
- Seeds of a Christian Trinity in Isaiah 63 and Psalm 78
- Seeds of a Christian Trinity in Ezekiel 8
- New Testament Use of Old Testament Godhead Language
- Summary of Old Testament Godhead Language
- Quiz – Unit 10
Unit 11: How Does an Old Testament Godhead Address the Claims of other Religions?
- The Old Testament Godhead and Jehovah’s Witnesses
- The Old Testament Godhead and Mormonism
- The Old Testament Godhead and Academic Skepticism
- The Old Testament Godhead and Jewish Evangelism
- Quiz – Unit 11
- Final Exam
- Title: OT291 The Jewish Trinity: How the Old Testament Reveals the Christian Godhead
- Instructor: Michael S. Heiser
- Publisher: Lexham Press
- Publication Date: 2014
- Product Type: Logos Mobile Education
- Resource Type: Courseware, including transcripts, audio, and video resources
- Courses: 1
- Video Hours: 4
About Michael S. Heiser
Dr. Michael S. Heiser is the academic editor for Logos Bible Software, Bible Study Magazine, and the Faithlife Study Bible. His varied academic background enables him to operate in the realm of critical scholarship and the wider Christian community. His experience in teaching at the undergraduate level and writing for the layperson both directly contribute to Logos’ goal of adapting scholarly tools for nonspecialists.
Dr. Heiser earned his PhD in Hebrew Bible and Semitic languages and holds and MA in ancient history and Hebrew studies. He is the coeditor of Old Testament Greek Pseudepigrapha with Morphology and Semitic Inscriptions: Analyzed Texts and English Translations, and can do translation work in roughly a dozen ancient languages, including Biblical Hebrew, Greek, Aramaic, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Ugaritic cuneiform. He also specializes in Israelite religion (especially Israel’s divine council), contextualizing biblical theology with Israelite and ancient Near Eastern religion, Jewish binitarianism, biblical languages, ancient Semitic languages, textual criticism, comparative philology, and Second Temple period Jewish literature. In addition, he was named the 2007 Pacific Northwest Regional Scholar by the Society of Biblical Literature.
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