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Composite Citations in Antiquity (Library of New Testament Studies | LNTS)

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Sean A. Adams and Seth M. Ehorn have drawn together an exciting range of contributors to evaluate the use of composite citations in Early Jewish, Greco-Roman, and Early Christian authors (up through Justin Martyr). The goal is to identify and describe the existence of this phenomenon in both Greco-Roman and Jewish literature. The introductory essay will help to provide some definitional parameters, although the study as a whole will seek to weigh in on this question. The contributors seek to address specific issues, such as whether the quoting author created the composite text or found it already constructed as such. The essays also cover an exploration of the rhetorical and/or literary impact of the quotation in its present textual location, and the question of whether the intended audiences would have recognised and ‘reverse engineered’ the composite citation and, as a result, engage with the original context of each of the component parts.

In addition to the specific studies, Professor Christopher Stanley provides a summary reflection on all of the essays in the volume along with some implications for New Testament studies.

Resource Experts

Key Features

  • Brings together essays from an extensive number of contributors
  • Examines how biblical authors use citations from other texts
  • Puts forward a striking addition to the literature on the use of the Old Testament in the New Testament


  • What is a Composite Citation?: An Introduction by Sean A. Adamsand Seth M. Ehorn
  • Greek Education and Composite Citations of Homer by Sean A. Adams
  • Composite Citations in Plutarch by Seth M. Ehorn
  • Citation in Elite Roman Epistolary Writing: The Letters of Cicero, Seneca, and Pliny by Margaret H. Williams
  • Composite Citations in Philo of Alexandria by James R. Royse
  • Composite Citations in the Damascus Document by Jonathan D. H. Norton
  • Composite Citations in the Septuagint Apocrypha by Sean A. Adams and Seth M. Ehorn
  • Composite Citations in Jewish Pseudepigraphic Works: Re-presenting Legal Traditions in the Second Temple Period by Garrick V. Allen
  • Composite Features and Citations in Justin Martyr's Textual Composition by Philippe Bobichon
  • The Testimonia Hypothesis and Composite Citations by Martin C. Albl
  • Composite Citations: Retrospect and Prospect by Christopher D. Stanley

About the Editors

Sean A. Adams is a lecturer at the University of Glasgow.

Seth M. Ehorn is visiting assistant professor of Greek Language and New Testament at Wheaton College. He has published articles in the Journal for Theological Studies, Currents in Biblical Research and is a contributor to the Encyclopaedia of Biblical Reception.

Sample Pages from the Print Edition


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