This academic work focuses on the concepts of atonement and sacrifice, using texts from the Pentateuch. Kiuchi looks at the differences between purification rites and those used for expiation. He discusses the Hebrew word, hattat, to discover if it is used mainly in instances of purification or atonement. A variety of interpretations are used to gain a fuller context of the source material.
“ In other words, the death caused by sin and uncleanness is annulled by substitutionary death.” (Page 162)
“Inevitably it must be translated ‘iniquity’, ‘guilt’, or ‘punishment’” (Page 50)
“Uncleanness, whether specific or general, is envisaged to be present in the sancta when the offerer stands before God” (Page 161)
“cleanses the altar but simultaneously bears guilt.” (Page 109)
“Thus we conclude that the hattat purifies sancta such as the outer altar, and unclean persons, though the sancta do not appear to be defiled by unclean persons, except in Lev 15:31 and Lev 16:16, 19.” (Page 62)