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The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages (40 vols.)

by Pastor, Ludwig

John Hodges, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., Routledge and Kegan Paul 1891–1953

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The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages (40 vols.)
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Overview

Ludwig Pastor's The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages (40 vols.) spans the pontificates of fifty-six Popes, from Clement V (1305–1314) to Pius VI (1755–1799). Before Pastor's work on the history of the Popes, the Vatican Archives had been closed to scholars and historians. Pastor's close relationship with Pope Leo XIII allowed him unprecedented access to research original documents and papers throughout Europe. For over forty years, through the pontificates of Leo XIII, Pius X, Benedict XV, and Pius XI, Pastor labored over The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages until his death in 1928. Translated from German into English, this forty volume-collection spans five centuries of important Catholic Church history.

Beyond his research in the Vatican Library and Vatican Archives, Pastor also garnered numerous other sources from never before accessed institutions, such as the Archives of the Lateran Palace, Archives of the Inquisition, Archives of the Propaganda Fide, Archives from the Secretariate of Briefs, the Library and private Archives of Rome, the private Archives of the Angelica Library, and more.

Each volume contains a detailed table of contents and timeline, a valuable list of sources, as well as introductions to the main political and historical context for each Pope. Pastor delves deep into the character and history for each Pontiff, tracking their contributions to the Church and the world. Major historical events and transformations are covered in detail, including the Council of Trent, the influence of Martin Luther, the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, the Thirty Years' War, the rise of secular states, and more, making The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages (40 vols.) important for both Protestants and Catholics alike.

With over 20,000 pages, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages (40 vols.) is the standard reference work on papal history during the Renaissance and Early Modern periods of the Catholic Church, and still widely cited by modern historians. With the Logos edition, all Scripture passages in The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages (40 vols.) are tagged and appear on mouse-over. What’s more, Scripture references are linked to the wealth of language resources in your Logos library. This makes these texts more powerful and easier to access than ever before for scholarly work or personal Bible study. With the advanced search features of Logos Bible Software, you can perform powerful searches by topic or Scripture reference—finding, for example, every mention of “Pius,” or “Council.”

Key Features

  • Five centuries of important Catholic Church history
  • Spans the pontificates of fifty-six Popes
  • Detailed table of contents for each volume
  • Completely searchable by topic, name, or Scripture reference

Praise for the Print Edition

What strikes one is the amount of labor spent by Professor Pastor in ransacking the Roman and other Italian archives, as, for instance, those of Bologna, Siena, Florence, Venice, Milan, and still more particularly those of Mantua. To praise further so learned and able a work would be superfluous.

The Dublin Review

Critics of many countries and of many creeds have been unreserved in their praise of the German historian's thoroughness, in their praise of the science of his method, and of the frank simplicity of his presentation. Nor have they been ungenerous in their acknowledgement of the benefit he has conferred, on all students and writers of modern history, by the new material that he has gathered, wisely and freely, from the rich mines hitherto unworked.

The American Catholic Quarterly Review

It would take the book critic too far to illustrate all the wealth of information here brought together. Like a living panorama, the days and scenes of the earlier centuries repeat themselves before us, men speaking and acting as they then did, without varnish or adaptation.

The American Ecclesiastical Review

Individual Titles

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 1

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: John Hodges
  • Publication Date: 1891
  • Pages: 419

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

Volume one of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1305–1447. Contents include:

  • Introduction
  • The Popes at Avignon, 1305–1376
  • The Schism and the Great Heretical Movements, 1378–1406 (1409)
  • The Synods of Pisa and Constance, 1409–1417 (1418)
  • Martin V, 1417–1431
  • Eugenius IV, 1431–1447

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 2

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: John Hodges
  • Publication Date: 1891
  • Pages: 580

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

Volume two of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1447–1458. Contents include:

  • Election of Pope Nicholas V, 1447–1455
  • First Years of the Reign of Pope Nicholas V
  • The Jubilee of 1450—Cardinal Cusa's Labors in Germany
  • The Last Imperial Coronation in Rome, 1452
  • Nicholas V as Patron of the Renaissance in Literature and Art
  • The Conspiracy of Stefano Porcaro, 1453
  • Advance of the Turks and Fall of Constantinople
  • Negotiations for Peace in Italy—The Crusade in Germany—Sickness and Death of Nicholas V
  • Calixtus III. The Champion of Christendom Against the Turks, 1455–1458
  • The Holy See and the Eastern Question
  • The Victory of the Crusaders at Belgrade
  • Skanerbeg—Deaths of Calixtus III and Cardinal Capranica

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 3

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1910
  • Pages: 424

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

Volume three of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1447–1464. Contents include:

  • Pius II
  • The Eastern Question and the Congress of Mantua
  • The Contest for the Neapolitan Throne
  • Opposition to Papal Authority
  • Attempted Reconciliation of Bohemia with the Church
  • The Eastern Question, 1460–1463
  • Plans of Reform
  • The Crusade and Death of Pius II

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 4

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1900
  • Pages: 535

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

Volume four of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1464–1483. Contents include:

  • Election of Paul II
  • Paul II and the Renaissance
  • The War Against the Turks
  • European Policy of Paul II, Reforms
  • The New Cardinals. Church Questions in Bohemia
  • Paul II's Care for the State of the Church
  • Death of Paul II
  • Election of Sixtus IV
  • Rise of the Rovere and Riario Families
  • The King of Denmark in Rome
  • The Jubilee Year
  • Beginning of the Rupture with Lorenzo De'Medici
  • The Conspiracy of the Pazzi
  • The Tuscan War
  • The Turkish War
  • Alliance between the Pope and Venice. Italian War.
  • The Pope's Struggle with Venice and the Colonna. Death of Sixtus IV
  • Sixtus IV and Ecclesiastical Matters
  • Sixtus IV as the Patron of Art and Literature

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 5

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1900
  • Pages: 576

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

Volume five of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1483–1497. Contents include:

  • Introduction
  • Election of Innocent VIII
  • Quarrels between the Pope and the King of Naples
  • The Relations between Rome and Naples
  • The Eastern Question
  • Innocent VIII as Patron of Art and Scholarship
  • Innocent VIII and the Defense of the Church
  • Election of Alexander VI
  • Alliance between Alfonso II of Naples and Alexander VI
  • Charles VIII in Italy
  • Charles VIII in Rome and Naples
  • Troubles in Italy

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 6

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1901
  • Pages: 670

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

Volume six of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1495–1511. Contents include:

  • Savonarola and Alexander VI
  • Alexander VI and Louis XII
  • Louis XII in Milan
  • The States of the Church and Borgia
  • Alexander VI's Action in the Church
  • Alexander VI as a Patron of Art
  • Pius III, 1503. Julius II, 1503–1513. The Conclaves of September and November, 1503
  • Disputes with Venice
  • Subjugation of Perugia and Bologna
  • The Political Situation between 1507 and 1509
  • Wars in Italy
  • The Holy League
  • Annihilation of the Power of France in Italy
  • Julius II and Art
  • Julius II and Michael Angelo
  • Raphael and the Vatican Stanze

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 7

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1908
  • Pages: 509

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

Volume seven of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1511–1521. Contents include:

  • Election and Beginning of the Pontificate of Leo X—His Efforts to Make Peace—End of the Schism of Pisa
  • The Medici and the Policy of Leo X, 1513–1515
  • The Conquest of Milan by the French—The Meeting between Leo X and Francis I at Bologna
  • The War of Urbino—The Conspiracy of Cardinal Petrucci—The Great Creation of Cardinals, July 1, 1517
  • The Pope's Endeavors to Promote a Crusade, 1517–1518
  • Leo X and the Imperial Succession
  • Luther is Summoned to Rome—His Transactions with Cardinal Cajetan and with Miltitz—His Roman Trial—The Bull "Exsurge"—Aleander's Mission, and the Imperial Edict Against Luther

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 8

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1908
  • Pages: 525

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

Volume eight of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1513–1521. Contents include:

  • Alliance of the Pope with the Emperor Charles V
  • Defeat of the French and Increase of the States of the Church—Death of Leo X
  • Personality and Manner of Life of Leo X—His Finances and Court
  • Medicean Rome
  • The Renaissance in the Field of Literature—Bembo and Sadoleto—Vida and Sannazaro
  • Study of Antiquity—Raphael and the Plan of Ancient Rome—Encouragement of the Study of Greek—The Vatican Library and the Roman University
  • Leo X as the Patron of the Arts—The Stanze, Tapestries, and Loggie of Raphael
  • Leo X and Michael Angelo—Promotion of the Minor Arts—The Building of New St. Peter's—The Preservation of Roman Antiquities
  • The Council of the Lateran
  • Leo X as the Patron of the Arts—The Stanze, Tapestries, and Loggie of Raphael
  • The French Concordat—Ecclesiastical Policy—Character and Pontificate of Leo X

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 9

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1910
  • Pages: 524

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

Volume nine of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1521–1527. Contents include:

  • Situation in Rome at the Death of Leo X—Election of Adrian VI
  • Early Career of Adrian VI—His Character and Habits—Journey to Rome—Neutral Attitude Towards the Powers—Projects of Peace and Reform
  • Adrian VI as a Reformer and Ecclesiastical Ruler
  • The Mission of Francisco Chieregati to the Diet of Nuremberg—Adrian's Attitude Towards the German Schism
  • Adrian's Efforts to Restore Peace and Promote the Crusade—The Fall of Rhodes and the Support of Hungary
  • The Intrigues of Cardinal Soderini and the Rupture with France—Adrian VI Joins the Imperial League—His Death
  • Clement VII—His Election, Character, and the Beginning of His Reign—His Ineffectual Efforts for Peace and His Alliance with Francis I of France
  • Results of the Battle of Pavia—Quarrels between the Pope and the Emperor—Formation of a Coalition Against Charles V (League of Cognac, May 22nd, 1526)
  • Clement VII and Italy at War with Charles V—The Raid of the Colonna
  • The Anti-Papal Policy of the Emperor—Advance of the Imperial Army on Rome
  • The Sack of Rome—Captivity of the Pope
  • The Anarchic Condition of the Papal States—The Efforts of Henry VIII and Francis I to Deliver the Pope—The Attitude of Charles V—The Flight of Clement VII to Orvieto

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 10

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1910
  • Pages: 525

Sample Pages: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7

Volume ten of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1527–1534. Contents include:

  • Clement VII in Exile at Orvieto and Viterbo—The Imperialists Leave Rome—Disaster to the French Army in Naples—The Weakness of the Pope's Diplomacy—His Return Home
  • Reconciliation of the Emperor and the Pope—The Treaties of Barcelona and Cambral
  • The Meeting of Clement VII and Charles V at Bologna—The Last Imperial Coronation—Restoration of the Medicean Rule in Florence
  • The Religious Divisions in Germany
  • Negotiations as to the Council, to the Pacification of Nuremberg, 1532
  • Clement VII's Efforts to Protect Christendom from the Turks
  • Clement the Seventh's Second Meeting with the Emperor at Bologna—The Conciliar Question in the Years 1532–1533—The Pope and Francis I at Marseilles—The Marriage of Catherine De'Medici
  • The Divorce of Henry VIII and the English Schism
  • The Protestant Revolt in Scandinavia and Switzerland—Heretical Movements among the Latin Races
  • The Close of the Pontificate of Clement VII—His Position Towards Literature and Art
  • Clement VII and the Internal Affairs of the Church—His Attitude towards the Questions of the Council and Reform
  • Beginnings of the Catholic Reformation—The Oratory of the Divine Love—Gaetano Di Tiene and Carafa
  • Gian Matteo Giberti—The Somaschi and the Barnabites
  • Reform of the Older Orders—The Capuchins

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 11

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1923
  • Pages: 615

Volume eleven of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1534–1547. Contents include:

  • The Conciliar Question in the Years 1534–1537
  • The Conciliar Question in the Years 1537–1539
  • The Work of Church Reform Prior to the Council of Trent
  • Renewal of the College of Cardinals. Reform Commissions
  • Peace and the Crusade—Charles V Captures Tunis and Visits Rome
  • The Holy League and the War Against the Turks—The Congress of Nice (1538)
  • The Papal States and the Rise of the Farnese Family—Disputes with Cosimo De'Medici—Subjection of Perugia and of the Colonna—Life in Rome, and the Carnival
  • The Conciliar Question and the Imperial Efforts at Reunion in the Years 1537–1541
  • The Conference at Worms
  • The Mission of Contarini to Germany—The Diet of Ratisbon
  • The Continuation of the Diet of Ratisbon—Its Close and Failure
  • Return of Contarini—His Death—Apostasy of Ochino
  • The Catholic Reformation under Paul III and the Italian Bishops—The Work of the Theatines, Barnabites, Ursulines, and Capuchins

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 12

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1923
  • Pages: 707

Volume twelve of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1521–1549. Contents include:

  • Ignatius of Loyola and the Society of Jesus
  • Constitutions of the Society of Jesus—Its Work in Europe and the Indies
  • The Turkish War—The Meeting between Paul III and Charles V at Lucca—The Conciliar Question, 1541–1543
  • The Meeting between Paul III and Charles V at Busseto—Suspensions of the Council—The Pope's Neutrality and Exertions for Peace—Misunderstandings with the Emperor
  • Spread of the German Schism—Cardinal Farnese's Mission to Worms—Negotiations for an Alliance between Paul III and Charles V Against the Protestants—Investiture of Pier Luigi Farnese with Parma and Piacenza—The Convening of the Council of Trent
  • Transactions and Decrees of the Five First Sessions of the Council of Trent (December 1545 to June 1546)
  • The Papal-Imperial League of June 1546—The Schmalkaldic War
  • Dissensions between Paul III and Charles V
  • Progress of the Council of Trent—Its Removal to Bologna—The Schmalkaldic Wars End in Victory for the Emperor—Assassination of Pier Luigi Farnese
  • The Emperor in Opposition to the Pope and the Authority of the Council
  • The Interim—Last Days of Paul III—His Death
  • The Completion of the Ecclesiastical Revolution in England and Scandinavia—The Protestant Propaganda in France
  • The Protestant Propaganda in Poland and Italy—Foundation of the Roman Inquisition—The Pope's Support of Christian Missions Outside Europe, and His Activity in Other Sphere of Work
  • Paul III as the Patron of Learning and Art

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 13

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1924
  • Pages: 476

Volume thirteen of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1549–1552. Contents include:

  • The Election of Julius III
  • Previous Life, Character and Beginning of the Reign of Julius III
  • Preparations for the Reassembling of the Council of Trent—The Dispute Concerning the Duchy of Parma
  • Second Period of the Council of Trent
  • War in Upper and Central Italy. Julius III's Efforts for Peace. Conclusion of His Pontificate and His Death
  • Efforts of Julius III for Reform—Creation of Cardinals
  • Spread of the Society of Jesus—Their Reforming Activities in Spain, Portugal, Italy and Germany
  • Activity of the Roman Inquisition in Italy—Spread of Heresy in Germany, Poland and France
  • Accession of Queen Mary of England—Her Marriage to Philip of Spain
  • Legation of Cardinal Pole—The Reconciliation of England with the Holy See
  • Spread of Christianity in the New World
  • The East Indies and the Mission of St. Francis Xavier
  • Julius III in Relation to Letters and Art—Michael Angelo and the Rebuilding of St. Peter's—The Villa Giulia
  • Rome at the End of the Renaissance Period

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 14

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1924
  • Pages: 509

Volume fourteen of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1552–1559. Contents include:

  • The Election of Marcellus II—His Family and Previous Career
  • The Pontificate of Marcellus II
  • Election of Paul IV—His Character and Projects—The Carafa
  • Commencement of the Struggle of Paul IV Against the Supremacy of Spain
  • Events Leading to the War with Spain
  • The War with Spain
  • Reform Measures of Paul IV—Renewal of the Sacred College
  • The Fall of Carafa
  • Further Reform Regulations—The New Orders. Paul IV and the Society of Jesus
  • Spread of Protestantism in the Netherlands, France and Poland
  • The Consummation of the Schism in Germany—Dispute of Paul IV with Ferdinand I
  • Mary the Catholic and the Legation of Cardinal Pole
  • Accession of Elizabeth, and the Establishment of the English State Church—Last Days of Paul IV

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 15

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1928
  • Pages: 442

Volume fifteen of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1559–1563. Contents include:

  • The Conclave of 1559
  • Previous Life and Character of Pius IV, the Beginning of his Pontificate
  • The Pope's Relatives. Charles Borromeo. Diplomatic Relations with the Princes
  • The Fall of the House of Carafa
  • Negotiations for the Re-opening of the Council of Trent
  • Final Preparations for the Re-opening of the Council
  • Re-opening of the Council of Trent. Sessions XVII to XXII
  • The Mission of Morone to Ferdinand I at Innsbruck. 1562–1563
  • The Concluding Sessions of the Council of Trent
  • Significance of the Council of Trent

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 16

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1928
  • Pages: 518

Volume sixteen of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1563–1565. Contents include:

  • The Confirmation of the Council of Trent—The Index—The Roman Catechism
  • Church Music—Palestrina
  • Reforming Activity of Pius IV, Charles Borromeo and the Jesuits
  • Attitude of the Powers towards the Tridentine Decrees. The Question of the Chalice for the Laity and Ecclesiastical Celibacy in Germany
  • State of Religion in Poland
  • State of Religion in France
  • State of Religion in England
  • State of Religion in Scotland and Ireland
  • The Roman Inquisition in Italy
  • Pius IV and Philip II—The Turkish Peril
  • Government of the Papal States—The Conspiracy of Accolti—End of the Pontificate
  • Pius IV and Art—Works in Rome—The Villa Pia—St. Peter's—Death of Michelangelo

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 17

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1929
  • Pages: 438

Volume seventeen of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1565–1571. Contents include:

  • The Conclave and the Election of Pius V
  • Previous Life and Character of Pius V—His First Measures of Reform
  • Government of the States of the Church. Pius V in Relation to Literature and Art
  • Reforming Zeal of Pius V. Reform of the College of Cardinals, the Curia, and the Roman Clergy
  • Reform of the Church on the Basis of the Tridentine Decrees
  • The Reform of the Religious Orders
  • The Roman Inquisition Preserves Religious Unity in Italy
  • The Trial of the Archbishop of Toledo, Bartolome Carranza. The Condemnation of Baius

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 18

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1929
  • Pages: 486

Volume eighteen of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1565–1572. Contents include:

  • Pius V and Philip II
  • The Pope's Struggle Against Spanish Cesaropapalism
  • The Beginning of the Rebellion in the Low Countries
  • Pius V and the Civil and Religious Wars in France—The Beginnings of the Catholic Reaction in France
  • The State of Religion in Scotland—Mary Stuart and Elizabeth
  • Pius V and Elizabeth—The Bull of Excommunication—Ireland
  • Pius V and Maximilian II—Catholic Reform in Germany—The Work of Canisius
  • Religious Conditions in Poland and Switzerland—Foreign Missions
  • Pius V and the League Against the Turks
  • The Victory of Lepanto and Afterwards—Death of Pius V

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 19

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1930
  • Pages: 645

Volume nineteen of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1572–1582. Contents include:

  • The Election of Gregory XIII—His Character and Government
  • Reforming Activity in the Church—Charles Borromeo
  • Progress of the Religious Orders—Reform of the Carmelites by Teresa of Jesus
  • Philip Neri and the Foundation of the Oratory
  • The Jubilee of 1575—The College of Cardinals
  • Gregory XIII and the Society of Jesus—The Colleges in Rome
  • Patronage of Learning—The Catacombs—New Editions of Canon Law and the Martyrology
  • Reform of the Calendar—The Roman Inquisition—The Index
  • Gregory XIII and the League Against the Turks
  • State of Religion in England—Edmund Campion
  • Gregory XIII and Scotland
  • Persecution in England and Scotland—Rise of the Puritans
  • The Massacre of St. Bartholomew
  • Civil and Religious Wars in France—Henry III and the League—Beginnings of Catholic Reform in France

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 20

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1930
  • Pages: 670

Volume twenty of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1573–1585. Contents include:

  • The revolt in the Low Countries—Decisive Change in the Situation in the Netherlands
  • The Catholic Revival in Germany—The German Congregation—Bavaria—The Tyrol—Salzburg
  • The Nunciatures of Portia, Gropper and Ninguarda in South Germany, Austria, and Bavaria
  • Nunciatures in South West Germany—State of Religion in Switzerland
  • The Catholic Revival in Germany
  • The "Declaration" of Ferdinand—Rudolph H. and the Catholic Revival
  • State of Religion in North Germany
  • The Situation in the Rhineland—Treves—Aix-la-Chappelle, Cologne
  • The Catholic Revival in Poland
  • The Missions to Sweden and Russia
  • Foreign Missions—Japan—China—The Indies
  • Foreign Missions—The Turkish Empire—Africa—Spanish America
  • The Papal States—Brigandage—The Pope's Care for Rome
  • Gregory XIII and Art—New Churches and Buildings
  • Decorations at the Vatican—The Quirinal—Death of the Pope—Importance of His Pontificate

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 21

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1932
  • Pages: 453

Volume twenty-one of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1585–1590. Contents include:

  • Election, Antecedents and Character of Sixtus V
  • Measures for the Suppression of Brigandage—The Pope's Care for the Welfare of His Subjects—Administration and Finance
  • Reforms in the Church—The Pope and the Religious Orders—The Jesuits
  • Foreign Missions in the East—Baianism—The Inquisition and the Index—The Sixtine Vulgate
  • Sixtus V and the Sacred College—The Cardinalitial Congregations
  • Disputes with Philip II—Sixtus V and the Parties in France
  • The Murder of the Guise—Sixtus V and the League—Murder of Henry III
  • Sixtus V and Spain

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 22

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1932
  • Pages: 467

Volume twenty-two of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1585–1591. Contents include:

  • The Trial and Execution of Mary Stuart—The Spanish Armada
  • Catholic Reform in Germany and the Netherlands
  • Work of the Nuncios in Hungary, Bohemia, Austria, and Switzerland
  • Plans for a Crusade—the Polish Election—Death of the Pope
  • Patronage of Learning and Art—The Water Supply of Rome—New Streets
  • The Obelisks—The Lateran Palace—The Vatican Library—The Quirinal—The Dome of St. Peter's
  • The Pontificate of Urban VII
  • The Pontificate of Gregory XIV
  • The Pontificate of Innocent IX

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 23

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1891
  • Pages: 419

Volume twenty-three of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1592–1605. Contents include:

  • Election, Previous Career and Character of Clement VIII—The Aldobrandini
  • Clement VIII and France
  • The Absolution of Henry IV
  • Religious Policy of Henry IV—Clement VIII Renews Friendly Relations with France—Revival of Religious Life in France
  • Clement VIII and Spain—The Pope Mediates Between Spain, France and Savoy—Decline of Spanish Influence in Rome
  • Clement VIII and the War Against the Turks
  • Catholic Restoration in South Germany, Bavaria and Austria
  • Catholic Restoration in the Rhine Provinces, Bohemia and the Spanish Netherlands

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 24

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1933
  • Pages: 592

Volume twenty-four of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1592–1605. Contents include:

  • Persecution of the Catholics in Holland and in England
  • Persecution in Scotland and Ireland—Clement VIII and James I
  • Attempted Catholic Restoration in Sweden
  • Progress of Catholic Restoration in Poland—Reunion of the Schismatic Ruthenians—The False Demetrius
  • Clement VIII and the Interior Life of the Church—The Religious Orders—The Episcopate—The Sacred College
  • The Roman Inquisition—Giordano Bruno—The Index—The Vulgate
  • Foreign Missions—The Beginnings of Propaganda
  • The Great Jubilee of 1600
  • The Controversy on Grace
  • The Papal States—The Re-acquisition of Ferrara—Death of the Pope
  • Clement VIII and Learning—Torquato Tasso
  • Clement VIII and Art

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 25

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1937
  • Pages: 478

Volume twenty-five of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1605–1617. Contents include:

  • The Conclaves in the Spring of 1605—Leo XI and Paul V
  • Antecedents, Character and Environment of Paul V—The Borghese
  • Paul V as Ruler of the Papal States—Papal Finance
  • Ecclesiastico-Political Struggle with Venice and Proclamation of the Interdict
  • Sarpi's Political Theories and His attempts to Protestantize Venice
  • Paul V's Reforming Activity within the Church—Suspension of the Thomist and Molinist Controversy—Canonizations
  • Paul V Fosters the Religious Orders—Galileo and the Roman Inquisition—Nomination of Cardinals
  • Spread of Christianity in Missionary Countries
  • Paul V's Efforts for the Pacification of Western Europe and Italy—Religious Conditions in Switzerland and Disturbances in the Grisons

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 26

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1937
  • Pages: 512

Volume twenty-six of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1605–1619. Contents include:

  • Catholic Reform and Restoration in France—Berulle and His Oratory—The Ursulines and the Visitation—Francis de Sales and Frances de Chantal—Revival of Catholicism in the Spanish Netherlands
  • The Position of Catholics in the German Diaspora, in the Republic of the Netherlands, and in Great Britain and Ireland—The Gunpowder Plot and the Oath of Allegiance—Paul V and James I's Plans for a Spanish Marriage
  • Russia and Poland—The End of the False Demetrius—Catholic Restoration under Sigismund III, King of Poland—The Union of the Ruthenians
  • Relation of Paul V with the Emperors Rudolph II, Matthias and Ferdinand II—Good Results of the Catholic Restoration in Germany—The Bohemian Revolution and the Beginning of the Thirty Years' War
  • Paul V as a Patron of the Arts—Completion of St. Peter's—The Pauline Chapel in S. Maria Maggiore—The Palace of the Quirinal—Streets and Fountains—The Borghese Palace and Villa—Transformation of the Eternal City

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 27

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1938
  • Pages: 336

Volume twenty-seven of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1619–1623. Contents include:

  • Election, Antecedents and Character of Gregory XV—The Ludovisi
  • Gregory XV's Activity within the Church—Creations of Cardinals—Bull on Papal Elections—Canonizations—Furthering of the Order
  • Foundation of Propaganda and State of the Missions—Position of Catholics in Holland and England
  • Progress of the Catholic Reformation and Restoration in France, Switzerland and the German Empire—Death of Gregory XV

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 28

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1938
  • Pages: 504

Volume twenty-eight of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1623–1642. Contents include:

  • The Conclave of the Year 1623—Urban VIII and the Barberini
  • Attitude of Urban VIII towards France and Spain—Devolution of the Duchy of Urbino—Conflict over the Valtellina and Cardinal Richelieu's Policy—The Peace of Monzon—Defeat of Protestantism in France and Germany
  • The Catholic Restoration in the Territories of the Emperor Ferdinand II and in the Romano-Germanic Empire
  • The Mantuan War of Succession—Tension between the Habsburgs and the Pope—French Intervention in Italy—Conquest of Mantua by the Imperial Troops—The Edict of Restitution Nullified—Richelieu's Alliance with Gustavus against the Habsburgs 1628–1632
  • The Pope's Fruitless Efforts for Peace—Continuation of the Thirty Years' War and France's Open Intervention against the Habsburgs 1633–1644
  • Richelieu's Attitude towards the Church and the Papacy—The Catholic Restoration in France and St. Vincent De Paul

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 29

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1938
  • Pages: 606

Volume twenty-nine of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1623–1644. Contents include:

  • Church Reforms by Urban VIII—The Jubilee of 1625—Reform of the Breviary—Religious Orders—The Roman Inquisition and the Trial of Galileo—Beginnings of Jansenism—Its Role in the History of the Church
  • Creations of Cardinals by Urban VIII—Relations with Poland—Struggle against the Caesaro—Papalism of the Small Italian States of Venice and Spain—The Portuguese Revolution
  • Propaganda and the Missions
  • The Situation of Catholics in Switzerland, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, England, Ireland, and Scotland
  • The States of the Church and the War of Castro
  • Urban VIII as Patron of Literature and Art—Rome a Baroque City

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 30

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1940
  • Pages: 467

Volume thirty of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1644–1655. Contents include:

  • The Conclave of 1644—Innocent X and the Pamfili
  • Mazarin and Innocent X—The Intrigues of the Barberini—The Imprisonment of Cardinal Retz—Relations with Spain and Portugal—The Rising at Naples
  • The Peace of Westphalia and Religious Conditions in Germany and Holland—The English Catholics under Cromwell—Ireland's Fight for Freedom, Her Defeat
  • Innocent's Work within the Church—The Jubilee Year
  • Jansenism in France and the Netherlands
  • Innocent X's Relations with Venice—The Pontifical States—Death of the Pope
  • Innocent X as a Patron of Art

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 31

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1940
  • Pages: 519

Volume thirty-one of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1654–1655. Contents include:

  • Alexander VII and the Chigi—the Papal States
  • The Return of Queen Christine of Sweden to the Catholic Church and Her Stay in Rome
  • Relations of Alexander VII with France and Venice—Defense against the Turks and Dispute with Louis XIV—Last Years of the Pope
  • Alexander VII's Activity within the Church—Reforms—Nominations of Cardinals—Religious Conditions in Germany, Switzerland, and Scandinavia—Missions
  • Alexander VII—A Promoter of Science and Art
  • Election, Antecedents and Character of Clement IX—The Rospigliosi—Patronage of Scholars and Artists
  • Religious Activities of Clement IX—Jansenism and the So-called Clementine Peace—Missions in the Far East
  • Clement IX's Efforts on Behalf of Peace between France and Spain and for the Defense against the Turks—The Loss of Crete—Death of the Pope
  • Clement X: His Election and Personality—The New Pope and Cardinal Paluzzi—Altieri—Patronage of Art
  • Support of Poland Against the Turks—Embassy of the Tsar of Russia in Rome
  • Clement X's Activity within the Church—The Jubilee of 1675—Creations of Cardinals—Disputes with Louis XIV—Death of the Pope

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 32

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1940
  • Pages: 706

Volume thirty-two of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1676–1700. Contents include:

  • Election, Antecedents and Character of Innocent IX
  • Innocent XI and the Defense against the Turkish Peril—The Pope's Efforts for Peace among the Christian Princes—The Congress of Nymeguen—Formation of an Anti-Turkish League
  • The Relief of Vienna, the Holy League and the War against the Turks in Hungary
  • Innocent XI's Struggle against Louis XIV's Absolutism and Gallicanism—The Assembly of the French Clergy, and the Four Gallican Articles of 1682
  • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes—Louis XIV's Violent Measures against Innocent XI
  • Innocent XI's Activity within the Church—Reforms and Creations of Cardinals—Jansenism and Controversies on Moral Theology—Beginnings of the Schism of Utrecht—Condemnation of the Quietist Molinos—State of the Missions
  • The North German Diaspora and the Movement for Reunion—Catholics in Holland and the Beginning of the Schism of Utrecht—Innocent XI and the Revolution in England—Death of the Pope
  • Pontificate of Alexander VIII, 1689–1691
  • The Conclave of 1691—Antecedents and First Measures of the New Pope—Reforms in the Papal States—Building Activity in Rome
  • Compromise with France—Decisions in Jansenist and Quietist Controversies—The Struggle against Probabilism—Abolition of Nepotism—Creation of Cardinals—The Missions and the Question of the Rites
  • Misunderstandings between Innocent XII and the Court in Vienna—The Peace and the Clause of Rijswijk—The Election of Augustus, Elector of Saxony, As King of Poland and His Conversion to the Catholic Faith—The Question of the Spanish Succession—Death of Innocent XII

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 33

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1941
  • Pages: 554

Volume thirty-three of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1699–1721. Contents include:

  • Election and Character of Clement XI—His Attitude During the First Years of the Spanish War of Succession—Increasing Tension in His Relations with the Emperor Leopold I
  • Joseph I's Contest with Clement XI—Louis XIV's Defeat in 1706 and the Conquest of Naples by the Austrians—The Imperialists' Attack on the Papal States—Defeat of the Papal Troops—The Peace of January 15th, 1709
  • Philip V's Hostility towards the Holy See—Negotiations for the Restitution of Comacchio—Death of Joseph I—Election of Charles VI as Emperor—Peace Treaties of Utrecht, Rastatt and Baden (1713–1714)
  • Clement XI's Efforts for the Protection of Christendom against the Turks—Victories of Prince Eugene—Intrigues of Cardinal Alberoni, His Downfall and the Triumph of the Quadruple Alliance
  • Revival of Jansenism—The Bulls Vineam Domini and Unigenitus—The Appellants—Belgian-Dutch Jansenism
  • Clement XI's Activity within the Church—Nomination of Cardinals—The Missions
  • Decision of the Question of the Chinese Rites—The Legations of Tournon and Mezzabarba—The Malabar Customs
  • The City of Rome and the Papal States—Furthering of Science and Art—Death of Clement XI

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 34

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, & Co.
  • Publication Date: 1941
  • Pages: 596

Volume thirty-four of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1721–1732. Contents include:

  • Pontificate of Innocent XIII—Election and Antecedents—Negotiations with the Emperor about Italy and with Spain and Portugal—Threat of War with Turkey—Jansenism—The Schism of Utrecht—Troubles in China
  • Pontificate of Benedict XIII—Election and Government—Cardinal Niccolo Coscia—Ecclesiastical and Political Concessions to the Emperor and the House of Savoy
  • Benedict XIII's Reforming Activity—The Jubilee and the Roman Provincial Council of 1725—Furthering of the Veneration of the Saints and other Ecclesiastical Activities—The Two Journeys to Benevento—Creations of Cardinals—The Missions
  • Jansenism in France and the Netherlands—Death of Benedict XIII
  • Election and Character of Clement XII—His Action as a Reformer
  • Loss of the Suzerainty over Parma and Piacenza—The Struggle for the Polish Succession and the Outbreak of War against the Emperor in Italy—Conquest of Naples and Sicily by the Spaniards—Provocation of the Pope by the Bourbons at Madrid and Naples—The Spanish Concordat of 1737
  • Nominations of Cardinals—Activity within the Church—Prohibition of Freemasonry—Religious Conditions in France and Germany—The Missions
  • Election and Character of Clement XII—His Action as a Reformer
  • Loss of the Suzerainty over Parma and Piacenza—The Struggle for the Polish Succession and the Outbreak of War against the Emperor in Italy—Conquest of Naples and Sicily by the Spaniards—Provocation of the Pope by the Bourbons at Madrid and Naples—The Spanish Concordat of 1737
  • Nominations of Cardinals—Activity with the Church—Prohibition of Freemasonry—Religious Conditions in France and Germany—The Missions
  • The States of the Church—Last Years of Clement XII's Pontificate—The Pope's Patronage of Scholarship and Art

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 35

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Routledge and Kegan Paul
  • Publication Date: 1949
  • Pages: 516

Volume thirty-five of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1740–1744. Contents include:

  • The Conclave of the 1740—Career and Personality of Benedict XIV—The Cardinal Secretary of State, Velenti Gonzaga—The Church's Peace Policy—The Concordats with Savoy, Naples, and Spain
  • Benedict XIV and the War of the Austrian Succession—His Attitude towards the Elections of the Emperors Charles VII and Francis I—The Peace Congress of Aix-La-Chapelle
  • The States of the Church—The Encouragement of Art and Learning
  • Jansenism in France and Holland
  • Benedict XIV's Activity within the Church—His Legislation—The Veneration of the Saints—The Jubilee Year of 1750—The Appointment of Cardinals—The Index—The Beginning of the Undermining of the Society of Jesus
  • Benedict XIV and the Missions

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 36

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Routledge and Kegan Paul
  • Publication Date: 1950
  • Pages: 513

Volume thirty-six of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1741–1765. Contents include:

  • Benedict XIV and Portugal—Pombal's Reforms and His Fight against the Jesuits
  • Benedict XIV's Care for the Silesian Catholics—His Relations with Frederick the Great
  • The Disputes about Carpegna and the Patriarchate of Aquileia—Foundations of Bishoprics and Conversions in Germany—Beginning of the Seven Years' War—Illness and Death of the Pope
  • The Conclave of 1758—Clement XIII's Care for the States of the Church—His Encouragement of Art and Learning
  • Jansenism in France and the Netherlands—Febronianism in Germany—Political "Enlightenment" under Maria Theresa
  • The Expulsion of the Jesuits from Portugal—Rupture of Diplomatic Relations between Rome and Lisbon
  • The Suppression of the Jesuits in France

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 37

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Routledge and Kegan Paul
  • Publication Date: 1950
  • Pages: 458

Volume thirty-seven of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1759–1769. Contents include:

  • The Church Policy of Charles III of Spain—The Expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain
  • The Expulsion of the Jesuits from Naples, Parma, and Malta—The Monitorium to Parma—Preparations for the Papal Suppression of the Society of Jesus—Death of Clement XIII
  • Clement XIII's Activities within the Church—The Creation of Cardinals—Canonizations—The Missions

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 38

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Routledge and Kegan Paul
  • Publication Date: 1951
  • Pages: 602

Volume thirty-eight of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1765–1774. Contents include:

  • The Conclave of 1769
  • Clement XIV's Previous Career and Personality—His Policy of Peace and Concessions—The Settlement with Portugal
  • The Bourbon's Demand for the Total Abolition of the Society of Jesus and Clement XIV's Resistance in the First Years of His Pontificate
  • The Suppression of the Society of Jesus—The Origin and the Issue of the Brief Dominus ac Redemptor, of 21st July, 1773
  • The Restitution of the Papal Territories of Avignon and Benevento—The Execution of the Papal Brief Suppressing the Society of Jesus
  • The First Partition of Poland and the Fate of the Catholics in the Annexed Territories—Febronianism in Germany
  • The Survival of the Jesuits in Prussia
  • Clement XIV's Activity within the Church—The Missions
  • Clement XIV as Patron of Learning and Art—His Government of the Papal States—His Illness and Death

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 39

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Routledge and Kegan Paul
  • Publication Date: 1952
  • Pages: 496

Volume thirty-nine of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1774–1784. Contents include:

  • The Election of Pius VI—His Previous Life and Personality—His Government of the States of the Church—His Encouragement of Learning
  • Pius VI as Patron of the Arts—The Influx of Foreigners into Rome
  • The Attempted Establishment of State Churches in Naples, Venice, and Tuscany—The Situation in Portugal
  • The Vicissitudes of the Catholics in Poland and Russia
  • Activity within the Church—Alphonsus of Liguori and the End of the Moral Controversy
  • The Missions under Pius VI
  • Joseph II's Ecclesiastical Legislation in Austria—Pius VI's Journey to Vienna and Joseph II's to Rome

The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. 40

  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Publisher: Routledge and Kegan Paul
  • Publication Date: 1953
  • Pages: 409

Volume forty of The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages covers the years 1776–1799. Contents include:

  • Hontheim's Recantation—The Erection of a Nunciature in Munich
  • The Congress of Ems and Its Aftermath—Disturbances in the Austrian Netherlands—Death of Joseph II—His Successors' Attitude towards the Church
  • The Church in France at the End of the Ancien Regime—The Outbreak of the Revolution—The Abolition of Ecclesiastical Privileges
  • The Ecclesiastical Legislation of the French National Assembly in 1789 and 1790—The Secularization of Church and Property and the Suppression of the Religious Houses—The Civil Constitution of the Clergy—The Attitudes Adopted by Louis XVI, Pius VI, and the French Hierarchy
  • The Fate of the Non-juring Clergy in France—The Reign of Terror
  • The Penetration of Revolutionary Ideas and Movements into the States of the Church
  • The French Clergy in Exile—Disestablishment of the Church in France
  • Bonaparte and the French in the States of the Church—The Establishment of the Roman Republic and the Expulsion of the Pope
  • The Renewal of the Persecution of the Clergy in France—Pius VI's Last Journey and His Death in Exile
  • Epilogue

Product Details

  • Title: The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages
  • Author: Ludwig Pastor
  • Volumes: 40
  • Pages: 20,996

About Ludwig Pastor

Ludwig Pastor was born in Aachen in 1854 and educated in Leuven, Bonn, and Vienna. Pastor taught at the University of Innsbruck from 1881–1900, and was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Leuven. In 1901, Pastor was appointed director of the Austrian Historical Institute in Rome. Emperor Francis Joseph I elevated him to the nobility, creating him Freiherr von Campersfelden in 1908. In 1921 he was appointed the Republic of Austria's ambassador to the Holy See. Ludwig Pastor started his magnum opus The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages in 1886 and continuously labored on it until his death in 1928.