This 1894 translation gives a rare glimpse into the hagiography and theological insights of early non-Chalcedonian church fathers on the Archangel Michael. Both Theodosius and Severus had personal interactions with the Roman Emperor Justinian I over the Miaphysite/Monophysite controversy, and both were eventually exiled and excommunicated for their beliefs on Christology. These encomiums discuss everything from the seventh-century icon of the Archangel Michael (and its interpretation) to the role of Saint Michael in Heaven and his involvement in various miraculous events as recorded throughout the Scriptures. The original Coptic texts and excerpts of the Arabic translation of the encomiums are included as well. Additionally, the Ethiopic text is also available for the work of Severus.
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Theodosius of Alexandria was Pope of the Church of Alexandria from 536 to 567. Theodosius was exiled to Upper Egypt in 536 by Emperor Justinian I due to his affiliation with Miaphysitism and the non-Chalcedonians (those who rejected the decisions of the fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon in 451). He is commemorated in the Coptic Synaxarion on 28 Ba'unah (June 5).
Severus of Antioch was enthroned as the Patriarch of Antioch on November 6, 512. Soon after, he went to Constantinople to meet with Emperor Justinian I, where Justinian attempted to sway Severus from his anti-Chalcedonian viewpoints. Severus was a chief proponent of the formulas of Dioscorus of Alexandria, and refused to change his mind. Justinian had him deposed and replaced him in Antioch with a Chalcedonian in 518. Severus later returned to Constantinople to attempt and heal the schism, but was unsuccessful. He was formally excommunicated in 536, returning to Egypt to live as an exile until his death in 538.
Eustathius of Trake was a bishop on the island of Trake, where it is believed by some that St. John Chrysostom was once sent to die in exile.
Sir Earnest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge (1857–1934) was a translator with a passion for ancient languages. After dropping out of school at the age of 12, Budge’s determination to learn caught the attention of the organist at St. Paul’s Cathedral, who helped him find an opportunity to explore his passion for language as a student at Cambridge University. Budge studied Hebrew, Syriac, Ethiopic,and Arabic at Cambridge, while mastering Assyrian remained a personal endeavor.
Professionally, Budge was an Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist. In 1920, his impact on Egyptology and the British Museum earned him knighthood. As a lifelong learner and an avid writer, Budge published many books throughout his life, the last being From Fetish to God in Ancient Egypt. He also wrote an autobiography entitled By Nile and Tigris