Evangelical Christians affirm together that a dreadful destiny awaits those who reject God's grace throughout life. According to the traditional view, that destiny will involve unending conscious torment in hell. However, believers are increasingly questioning that understanding, as both unbiblical and inconsistent with the character of God revealed in the Scriptures and in the man Jesus Christ.
This internationally acclaimed book—now fully updated, revised, and expanded—carefully examines the complete teaching of Scripture on the subject of final punishment. It concludes that hell is a place of total annihilation, everlasting destruction, although the destructive process encompasses conscious torment of whatever sort, intensity, and duration God might require in each individual case.
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- Addresses conflicting views on hell
- Examines hell from a Scriptural basis
- Includes a bibliography and indexes of authors, Scriptures, and other ancient documents
- Rethinking Hell: Apostasy or New Reformation?
- Back to the Bible: The Protestant Principle
- Souls: Immortal or Otherwise
- Aionios: Duration, Quality, or Both?
- Sheol/Hades: Gravedom?
- Divine Justice: When?
- Divine Justice: Historical Examples
- Divine Justice: Messiah and the End
- Diversity: Apocrypha and Dead Sea Scrolls
- Diversity: Pseudepigrapha
- Jesus: Fire (Gehenna)
- Jesus: Fire (Gehenna Not Named)
- Jesus: Fire (Parable of the Sheep and the Goats)
- Jesus: Fire (Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus)
- Jesus: Non-Fire Images
- Golgotha: Judgment Revealed (1)
- Golgotha: Judgment Revealed (2)
- Galatians and Corinthians
- Romans, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians
- Hebrews, James, Acts
- 1–2 Peter, 1–3 John, Jude
- Apostolic Fathers and Their Successors
- The Apologists: A Fire That Torments
- Apokatastasis: A Fire That Purifies
- Arnobius to Augustine
- Augustine's Case for Unending Torment
- Middle Ages to Reformation
- John Calvin: Psychopannychia
- An Old Tradition Questioned
- Roots of the Current Recovery
- The Evangelical Recovery Continues
- A Kinder and Gentler Traditionalism
- Refreshing the Memory
Praise for the Print Edition
I commend this book warmly. It is likely to remain a standard work to which everyone engaged with this issue will constantly return.
—Richard Bauckham, Emeritus Professor of New Testament Studies, University of Saint Andrews
The Fire That Consumes has long been recognized as one of the most thorough and compelling statements available of the view that the destiny of the unsaved will be final destruction rather than eternal torment. In this new edition, Edward Fudge provides extended engagement with traditionalist critics and an overview of developments in the last thirty years ensuring that it will remain a definitive work on the issue for years to come.
—John R. Franke, Theologian in Residence, First Presbyterian Church, Allentown, PA
- Title: The Fire That Consumes: A Biblical and Historical Study of the Doctrine of Final Punishment
- Author: Edward William Fudge
- Edition: Third
- Publisher: Wipf & Stock
- Publication Date: 2011
- Pages: 420
About Edward William Fudge
Edward William Fudge is a Christian theologian, Bible teacher, author, and, for more than twenty years, a practicing attorney. He maintains an international internet ministry, Edward Fudge Ministries.