The Social-Science Commentary series presents a pioneering alternative commentary genre that offers a contextual approach to the study of the New Testament, thoroughly grounded in the original audience’s first-century cultural setting. This commentary on the text of the Deutero-Pauline letters provides a contextual approach to the study of Colossians, Ephesians, and 2 Thessalonians that is thoroughly grounded in the original audience’s ancient socio-cultural setting. This volume provides essential “reading scenarios” on specific cultural phenomena in these letters, including forgery, normative conflict, paideia (training), and household codes. The “reading scenarios” sections present the perspective of the original audience drawn from anthropological studies of the Mediterranean social system, offering clues for filling in the unspoken or implicit elements of the writing as a Mediterranean reader would certainly have done. This volume also presents what the authors call “the transformation of the memory of Paul” in early Christianity that reflects the concerns and interest of the Pauline communities after Paul’s death.