Kairos: A Beginning Greek Grammar with Workbook and Answer Key (3 vols.)
Fredrick J. Long 2005–2007
Having a good teacher makes all the difference when learning to read and understand the Greek New Testament. The Kairos beginning grammar and accompanying workbook are the next best thing to having a personal Greek tutor guiding you along the path toward proficiency.
Dr. Fred Long, assistant professor of New Testament at Bethel College in Indiana, developed these materials exclusively for his own students and we're making them available to you! This is the world premiere of an excellent new curriculum for learning New Testament Greek.
Dr. Long, who holds a Ph.D. in religious studies from Marquette University, began teaching Greek at Asbury Theological Seminary in 1993 and soon realized that the existing Greek textbooks were all lacking in one area or another. So he created this first-year textbook and workbook to address some of the deficiencies he observed.
These materials have been tested in the classroom and revised over the years in response to student feedback. In fact, they have been used to successfully introduce NT Greek to more than a hundred undergraduate and seminary students in Dr. Long's classes.
Kairos provides an easy yet structured way to get started with biblical Greek. If you have been wanting to learn Greek but haven't started formal training (or your formal training is a dim memory), these materials will guide you to a place where you can read the New Testament on your own. The grammar is a learning grammar (not a reference grammar), and the workbook exercises have been painstakingly crafted to help the novice progress quickly.
If you're a Greek instructor, Kairos would make a great introductory text that could integrate with one of the Logos Bible Software base packages, giving students all the tools they need to succeed with the language. And your classes can actually complete its 28 chapters in two semesters!
We have received many requests for a first-year learning grammar. Even if you own Scholar's Library Silver Edition with Nunn's Syntax and Elements, you will benefit from the Kairos grammar and workbook as it is uses a more contemporary approach and more extensive, guided exercises.
Preface to the Grammar
As you may already know, I have entitled this textbook after the New Testament idiom εξαγορ?ζεσθαι τ?ν καιρ?ν literally, “buy up the opportunity.” It is found in Col 4:5 and Eph 5:16 meaning “make the most of every opportunity.” I think you can understand how this idiom is appropriate for learning New Testament Greek in the context of preparing for Christian ministry.
Let me briefly explain about ΚΑΙΡΟΣ: A Beginning Greek Grammar. I once told a fellow seminary friend, Rev. Pat Holley, that I would never write a Greek textbook because of the vast numbers of them and if I did, that he should shoot me. However, when I became a Greek Teaching Fellow at Asbury Theological Seminary (1993-95), I soon began to realize that no textbook was completely “adequate.” Each had their strengths, but also their corresponding weaknesses. Some explained English grammar, some assumed it. Some taught diagramming methods, some ignored them. Some explained too much, some explained too little. Some had adequate exercises, most very scanty. Some presented the material in a systematic and logical fashion, some appeared scattered. Some were deductive, some inductive.
Then, in 1994, I took an intensive Latin class in fulfillment of a Master’s degree in Classics from the University of Kentucky. The textbook used was Moreland and Fleischer’s 1990 edition, Latin: An Intensive Course. In this textbook I found a model for a Koine (Biblical) Greek grammar that would span two semesters (28 chapters). It is possible to work through one chapter a week and still have time for review and testing during the semester or quarter.
...It is my hope that you will come to love the NT in Greek through using this Grammar and Workbook. Furthermore, I pray that you will become fruitful interpreters of God’s Word and ultimately more effective pastors and teachers.
Fredrick J. Long, 2004
Preface to the Workbook
As you prepare to use this Workbook, I would like you to know that I have joyfully labored to make it the most effective possible in conjunction with ΚΑΙΡΟΣ: A Beginning Greek Grammar. The Workbook for ΚΑΙΡΟΣ has been carefully designed. You will be translating New Testament verses and paragraphs as quickly as possible in order to begin reaping the benefits of your labor. Let me briefly explain about the Workbook for ΚΑΙΡΟΣ.
- The chapter exercises were made that would exercise the vocabulary presented in each particular chapter.
- New Testament verses were sought out that would appropriately exercise the vocabulary and grammar presented in each chapter.
- These verses are used as soon as possible to encourage students.
- The Workbook contains actual idioms that were painstakingly ferreted out from the Greek NT, so that, even before translating Biblical verses and paragraphs, you will be working with actual Biblical thoughts and phrases.
- Some sentences for translation exercises are also taken from the Septuagint (LXX), the Greek translation of the Old Testament. This is valuable for many reasons, not least of which is the fact the NT writers often allude to or quote from the LXX. Indeed, the influence of the LXX translation on the NT writers is very great.
- Although the student will be formally presented with every word occurring 50 times or more, in actuality a larger vocabulary is learned, because the exercises contain many words that are not formally presented. The meaning of these “extra” words is given at the end of the sentence in parentheses.
- More exercises are included than can be completed in any given week, so that students will have fresh sentences to review before the tests. Also, these numerous exercises provide instructors ample material to create quizzes and tests.
The textbook exercises for each chapter contain six sections:
- Overview is mainly for the student and not necessarily formally to be assigned. It asks straightforward questions to make sure the student understands what are the main things to be learned in each chapter. If the student can answer these questions, then the core material has been learned.
- Vocabulary is a series of crossword puzzles in Greek for each Chapter; additionally, old vocabulary is progressively reviewed in this process.
- Review reviews the grammar of the previous chapter by providing further translation exercises, parsing of verbs, etc. This will keep the student reviewing; learning a language is a cumulative exercise.
- Focus is designed to focus on the current grammar presented in the current chapter. The purpose of this section is to exercise specific points of grammar intentionally, rather than for the student to see a particular point of grammar only a few times in sentences.
- Sentences are carefully chosen scriptures to exercise the student over all the grammar up to that chapter. The most current grammar, however, is given a more gracious showing.
- Reading gives the students an opportunity to read New Testament Greek within a larger context. Reading and interpreting the New Testament in context is the ultimate goal of ΚΑΙΡΟΣ. Paragraph reading helps students to begin to see nuances of word order, the importance of conjunctions, and other features of discourses as a whole (e.g., repetitions).
Lastly, the Workbook contains deductive and inductive features:
- Certain exercises drill a very particular point of Greek grammar, for example, “Demonstrative pronouns” or “These sentences contain 2nd Aorist verbs”, etc.
- Words that have not been covered and yet whose meaning can be derived from its component Greek stems are sometimes left for the student to figure out. This is truer in the latter half of the book.
- Sometimes a grammatical construction that is covered in a future chapter is briefly encountered in the immediately preceding exercises. This helps the student develop an intuitive grasp of the language by giving them some handle on a new grammatical construction even before they actually come to it in the Grammar later.
Two final comments are in order for you, the Student. First, be sure to memorize the vocabulary words for a particular chapter before doing the exercises in the Workbook. If you do, then the exercises will reinforce your vocabulary. Second, learning Greek is a cumulative process. Daily work is required. It is not possible to “cram in” the material once a week. So, it is best to maintain a healthy daily diet of NT Greek. Bon appetite!
Fredrick Long, Ph.D.
Electronic Books Included
- ΚΑΙΡΟΣ: A Beginning Greek Grammar
- ΚΑΙΡΟΣ: A Workbook for Beginning Greek Grammar
- : Answer Key and Guide
- language learning is built around the verb, which is introduced as early as possible in Chapter 3
- vocabulary is presented first and is arranged by part of speech
- a simple and orderly presentation of grammar (no footnotes! and no technical sidenotes), but not simplistic
- three systems of sentence diagramming are introduced—traditional, semantic, and a fundamental sentence marking method innovated by the author—each of which an instructor or student may or may not choose to use
- an example of, instructions for, and assignment on how to do a word study; some instruction on Greek accents is provided throughout; focus is on the exegetical use of Greek, by highlighting significant grammatical and syntactical features that impact exegesis.
- An overview of English grammar is provided in Chapter 1;
- The traditional method of sentence diagramming sentences is explained at suitable places throughout;
- A method of marking essential components in a Greek sentence is introduced in Chapter 4 (this might be used instead of the traditional diagramming method);
- A discussion of English grammar accompanies the newly presented Greek grammatical constructions.
- A systematic presentation of grammar…
- beginning with the Present Indicative Verb
- the First and Second Declensions with the definite article
- Prepositions and Compound verbs (verbs with affixed prepositions)
- the more frequent pronouns (Personal, Demonstrative, and Relative)
- By the end of the first half of the Grammar, all the tenses of the Indicative Mood are presented, all the proper prepositions covered, the consonant-stem Third Declension nouns introduced.
- In the second half, we cover the non-Indicative moods, vowel-stem Third Declension nouns, conditional sentences, Mi-Verbs, and generally, the least frequent points of grammar which have an occurrence of roughly 50 times or more.
- The beginning grammar is thoroughly cross-referenced to Daniel Wallace’s intermediate and exegetical Greek grammar, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics.
- Greek Accents rules are briefly explained, but not heavily stressed or focused upon, except where accents are important to distinguish otherwise identical word forms.
- An overall vocabulary of words generally occurring 50 times or more.
- In each chapter the Vocabulary is laid out in a simple, organized fashion:
- The most frequently occurring vocabulary words are included towards the beginning of the Grammar with few exceptions.
- Since the chapters are arranged by grammar, the corresponding vocabulary is presented then; for example, adjectives are provided when the grammar of adjectives is introduced.
- Also, the parts of speech and special groups of Greek words within a Chapter Vocabulary are grouped together; for example, all the adjectives are listed together, all the prepositions, all the nouns, etc. This makes memorization easier.
- A special section after each Chapter Vocabulary is included called Notes on Vocabulary. This section contains a discussion of word meanings, English cognates to assist in memorization, common Greek idioms using the vocabulary words, and other important information.
- A Case in Point is included at the end of each chapter that briefly describes how a particular point of Greek grammar just presented helps us as interpreters when interpreting the NT. In other words, the Case in Point illustrates how Greek grammar is valuable as a tool for the study of the NT.
- A well-organized, complete yet simple appendix is included which includes a summary of forms, accent rules, and a summary of special grammatical constructions presented throughout the Grammar.
- A master vocabulary of words occurring 20 times or more is included.
- Finally, KAIROS: A Beginning Greek Grammar has an accompanying Workbook which has been carefully crafted.
Praise for the Print Edition
Most textbooks share common elements and even structure, while the greatest differences between them (in my mind) are the workbook exercises. Dr. Long has obviously put quite a deal of effort into designing a workbook that accommodates ambitious as well as steady learners. On a personal note, I tend to load myself with many classes at once—which makes ambitious, consistent learning in one subject less feasible. However, the Kairos workbook supplies enough exercises such that if you get foggy on a given topic (e.g. noun clauses), you can return to that section, reread the material, and have half a dozen to perhaps twenty problems that have not yet been worked...Overall, I would recommend Kairos to anyone who wants to learn Greek, both for personal research and exegesis, and also for classroom study.
—Joel Barrett, former student of Dr. Long
The Kairos program worked very well for me. With Kairos I was able to teach myself most of the Greek. This system for learning a language was better than any other I have used (which would include German and Spanish in high school). With the help of a lexicon I can interpret most NT passages, and this ability is a great help in exegesis. The grammar is not too hard, but thoroughly teaches the skills one needs.
—Matt Alwine, undergraduate student preparing for ministry
This book is practical and understandable for students and laymen with no previous background in Greek. However, it is also thorough and detailed enough to give one a good grasp of the foundations of the language. Long has done both pastors and laymen a favor with this wonderful introduction to the Biblical language.
—Pastor Bill Barnwell, Faith Missionary Church, Flint, Michigan
- Title: Kairos: A Beginning Greek Grammar with Workbook and Answer Key
- Author: Dr. Fredrick Long
- Publisher: Logos Research Systems
- Publication Date: 2004
- Volumes: 3
About Dr. Fredrick Long
Dr. Fredrick Long is an assistant professor of New Testament. He holds a B.S. with high honors in Animal Science from the University of Illinois (1988); an M.Div. from Asbury Theological Seminary specializing in Biblical Studies (1992); an M.A. in Classical Greco-Roman Literature from the University of Kentucky (1995); and a Ph.D. in Religious Studies from Marquette University specializing in Biblical Theology (1999).
Long has taught at Asbury Theological Seminary as a Greek and Hebrew Teaching Fellow (1993-1995); for Trinity Evangelical Divinity School's Graduate Extension in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as an adjunct Greek Professor (1996-1997); at Marquette University as a graduate research and teaching assistant (1996-1998); and as a lecturer for the Adult Continuing Education Program (1997-1998).