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Baker Hermeneutics and Interpretation Collection (17 vols.)


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The Baker Hermeneutics and Interpretation Collection is a compilation of 17 volumes about the principles and practice of biblical interpretation. It includes guides to the theory and application of hermeneutics, studies in the exegetical methods of New Testament authors and early Christians, and surveys of influential biblical scholars. These texts provide reference for the sound interpretation of Scripture. Bible scholars, students, and those interested in deepening their personal study will appreciate this collection.

Resource Experts
  • Guides to biblical interpretation
  • Surveys of well-known Bible scholars
  • Practical applications for personal Bible study
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In the Logos editions, these valuable volumes are enhanced by amazing functionality. Scripture citations link directly to English translations, and important terms link to dictionaries, encyclopedias, and a wealth of other resources in your digital library. Powerful searches help you find exactly what you’re looking for. Tablet and mobile apps let you take the discussion with you. With Logos Bible Software, the most efficient and comprehensive research tools are in one place, so you get the most out of your study.

Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible

  • Editor: Kevin J. Vanhoozer
  • Publisher: Baker
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Pages: 896

Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible is a groundbreaking reference tool that seeks first of all to marry the tasks of exegesis and theology with the goal of theological interpretation of Scripture—that is, interpretation that has recovered a focus on the subject matter of Scripture: the nature and activity of God and the gospel. Second, it aims to provide a guide to understanding various interpretative approaches and a tool for evaluating them in light of this goal.

The dictionary covers a wide range of topics related to biblical interpretation with both depth and clarity. Topics include the theological interpretation of individual books of the Bible, issues of hermeneutics, various biblical interpreters and interpretative communities, and the interplay of interpretation with various doctrines and doctrinal themes. The contributors represent a diverse range of theological backgrounds and interpretative approaches and are experts in their respective fields.

A landmark volume for the church’s engagement with Scripture. It will be a basic resource on the role and use of the Bible.

Christianity Today

In this remarkable dictionary, the Bible is reclaimed as a book of and for the church. I predict that when the history of theology of our time is written what Vanhoozer, Bartholomew, Treier, and Wright have done will be seen as a watershed. In this book theology returns to its source, that is, Scripture.

—Stanley Hauerwas, Gilbert T. Rowe Professor of Theological Ethics, Duke Divinity School

Both the academy and the church have awakened to the need to bring exegesis and theology back into relationship with one another. This dictionary, partly because it covers such a wide range of topics, provides a useful resource for those engaged in learning how to read the Bible, with all its historical particularity, as a word from God to his people of this generation.

—Douglas Moo, Blanchard Professor of New Testament, Wheaton College

This dictionary will be an exceedingly useful addition to the library of every Christian, professional and lay, who wants to learn skills for reading the Bible more insightfully. Scholarly yet accessible, historically grounded yet forming us for the future, broadly global in perspective yet enabling readers to see the theological implications of biblical books and study methods for their own lives and their communities, the articles gathered here equip us all to know the triune God more thoroughly and to offer Christian alternatives to our world more gracefully and purposefully. This is an outstanding resource presented by many of my favorite teachers.

—Marva J. Dawn, teaching fellow in spiritual theology, Regent College

Kevin J. Vanhoozer (PhD, University of Cambridge) is research professor of systematic theology at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois. He is the author or editor of many books, including Is There a Meaning in This Text? and Everyday Theology: How to Read Cultural Texts and Interpret Trends.

Biblical Interpretation: An Integrated Approach

  • Author: W. Randolph Tate
  • Edition: 3rd
  • Publisher: Baker Academic
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Pages: 400

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The third edition of Biblical Interpretation focuses on the three “worlds” of biblical interpretation—the world behind the text, the world of the text, and the world in front of the text. A fourth section helps readers combine the three worlds into an integrated hermeneutical strategy. Clear explanations of the various interpretive approaches are supported by helpful biblical examples. Key terms and study questions at the end of each chapter make this book ideal for classroom use. Succinct synopses highlight a host of distinct approaches to understanding the Bible. New synopses and an updated bibliography help readers keep pace with the most recent developments in biblical interpretation.

Tate offers an informed and balanced study of variety in biblical interpretation. His command of primary and secondary sources and his clarity of presentation make this book a vade mecum for students and teachers.

—Phyllis Trible, university professor of biblical studies, Wake Forest University

In this significantly expanded edition of his textbook, W. Randolph Tate brings the advantages of an integrated understanding of biblical hermeneutics to a new generation of interpreters. He does more here than simply clarify his explanations of methods and add updated bibliographical references. In this edition Tate more fully applies his ‘three worlds’ typology to an orientation of biblical hermeneutics vis-à-vis the plethora of critical methods now in regular use among increasingly diverse contemporary literary and biblical interpretive communities. In the process his typology proves itself a flexible and reliable framework for the study of biblical hermeneutics.

—William Yarchin, professor of biblical studies, School of Theology, Azusa Pacific University

Tate’s 1991 book carefully sketched out the differences between and the interrelationships among the world behind the text, the world within the text, and the world in front of the text. The second and revised edition (1997) provided additional information about the relationship between the text and the reader: ‘What Happens When We Read?’ His third edition addresses some of the new insights into hermeneutics that have appeared within the last decade. While short lists of relevant resources are included throughout the book after each section, a 22-page bibliography can be found at the end of the book. These bibliographies, along with the author, subject, and biblical text indices at the end, add to the usefulness of this first-rate book as a textbook for studying biblical interpretation.

The Bible Today

While Tate insists that his is not a textbook on critical methodologies, one of the outstanding features of this volume is its insistence on providing an accessible (and of necessity, brief) introduction to the seemingly inexhaustible list of methodological approaches currently at the disposal of the contemporary biblical interpreter. Not surprisingly, given Tate’s work on Mark, the volume excels toward the end when illustrating the merging of Tate’s ‘three worlds’ in his interpretation of the second gospel. . . . An array of indexes, a steady stream of discussion questions, and well-stocked lists of further reading make this a very usable introduction to contemporary biblical interpretation.

Vetus Testamentum

Tate’s third edition of his Biblical Interpretation reveals a mature approach to the subject of hermeneutics. . . . Review questions are included with each chapter to help the reader think through the issues. . . . The book is especially helpful for those who have already studied hermeneutics and exegesis. . . . Readers will also benefit from Tate’s discussion of critical methods. . . . This volume is a helpful addition to resources on interpretation. Its focus on three worlds [author, text, and reader] provides a perspective that will help readers balance their approach in the exegetical process.

Bibliotheca Sacra

W. Randolph Tate is a professor of humanities at Evangel University in Springfield, Missouri, where he has taught for more than 25 years. He is the author of several books, including Handbook for Biblical Interpretation: An Essential Guide to Methods, Terms, and Concepts, 2nd ed. and Interpreting the Bible: A Handbook of Terms and Methods.

Handbook for Biblical Interpretation: An Essential Guide to Methods, Terms, and Concepts

  • Author: W. Randolph Tate
  • Edition: 2nd
  • Publisher: Baker Academic
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Pages: 544

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This handbook provides a comprehensive guide to the methods, terms, and concepts used by biblical interpreters. Offering students and nonspecialists an accessible explanation of the complex vocabulary that accompanies serious biblical studies. Articles, arranged alphabetically, explain terminology associated with reading the Bible as literature, clarify the various methods Bible scholars use to study biblical texts, and illuminate how different interpretive approaches can contribute to our understanding. Article references and topical bibliographies point readers to resources for further study. This handbook is now updated and revised to be more useful for students. It is a suitable compliment to any standard hermeneutics textbook.

Randolph Tate’s Handbook for Biblical Interpretation is an indispensable reference for any student new to academic biblical studies. I have required the previous edition as a textbook for my biblical hermeneutics classes since its publication. Tate provides just the right amount of information for hundreds of terms that are the working vocabulary of biblical scholarship. The brief bibliographies point to the next level of depth for students ready to investigate further. For those who have been out of seminary for several years, Tate provides longer articles to introduce recent literary and agenda criticisms. No seminarian, seminary graduate, or graduate student of Bible should be without this work.

—Roger L. Hahn, Willard H. Taylor Professor of Biblical Theology, Nazarene Theological Seminary

Hermeneutics has become a huge, difficult area in recent years, with a plethora of different methods, schools of thought, and divergent views on how it should be conducted. Tate’s Handbook is an important resource for students and scholars who don’t have time to keep up with the various movements and who find themselves confused by current shifts. It is an invaluable resource for serious biblical understanding.

Grant Osborne, professor of New Testament, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School

Confused about the difference between exegesis and eisegesis? Unclear about the ‘hermeneutical spiral?’ This A to Z reference book will be a handy guide for those students of biblical interpretation who long for clear, succinct definitions of terms and the various approaches. Tate models this after the classic Handbook to Literature, which has coached thousands of students in the difference between literary criticism, narrative criticism, reader-response criticism, and other techniques. His book, however, deals solely with methods of biblical interpretation, applying the various schools of thought to biblical hermeneutics. Particularly helpful are his explanations of contemporary approaches like mujerista theology (which merits a full six pages) and deconstructionism. No seminarian or biblical scholar should be without this easy-to-use reference work.

Publishers Weekly

This is an extremely helpful reference tool, and Tate deserves the gratitude of scholars, students, and lay readers alike for producing it.

Review of Biblical Literature

The work covers a very wide range of topics. . . . Entries that give straightforward definitions do not have bibliographies or references attached, but those dealing with particular theories, processes, or concepts are provided with essential further references to allow the enquirer to pursue the topic further. There are numerous and extensive cross-references which make it much easier to find the necessary information, especially for the general reader who may not be familiar with the terminological structure of the disciplines involved. . . . Each entry is clearly written and well structured, often with examples from Scripture to illustrate particular points. . . . This book deserves to be considered as a useful tool for the non-religious library or scholar. It provides a wealth of valuable information about many aspects of the Bible, literary criticism, social and cultural anthropology, philosophy, and philology. For the religious-minded it gives the opportunity to find depth and greater understanding in many well-known and often overplayed texts. As a scholarly work it stands with the giants in the field. Not only is it well written and excellently produced, but also the price is such that overstretched library budgets can easily accommodate it to make it accessible to members of the general public. It should find a place on every academic library shelf and also in the most modest of private collections built up by pastors and general readers. Thoroughly to be recommended.

Emerald Reference Review

This is the most complete and up-to-date manual of biblical criticism. Very likely to be the authoritative standard resource on its subject, it is indispensable for everyone who seeks to understand why and how new types of literary criticism are developing into the leading paradigm of biblical studies. Highly recommended.

International Review of Biblical Studies

An extremely competent work and a valuable resource for both students and scholars.

Journal for the Study of the Old Testament

Tate has provided a helpful tool for beginning students as well as advanced graduates and even professors. The work is broad enough that it can be used in an array of disciplines, whether they pertain to the areas of Old Testament, New Testament, theology, linguistics, or philosophy of language. In addition, Tate maintains a difficult balance in being able to define terms accurately and many times concisely without being reductionistic or incoherent. So for the most part, a student can read a given article, be exposed to the fundamental usage of the word under consideration, and see how it coincides with other terms in the overall context of biblical and literary disciplines. . . . If a student or professor is interested in staying up to date on hermeneutics as a philosophical and/or biblical discipline, having access to this work can definitely aid in that goal.

Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society

This handbook should find its way into the library of every serious student of the Bible and could be used as a textbook for foundations courses in biblical studies.

Teaching Theology and Religion

This is a useful handbook both for students and biblical scholars who need some guidance on navigating the terminological waters of the newer criticisms.

Religious Studies Review

W. Randolph Tate is a professor of humanities at Evangel University in Springfield, Missouri, where he has taught for more than 25 years. He is the author of several books, including Handbook for Biblical Interpretation: An Essential Guide to Methods, Terms, and Concepts, 2nd ed. and Interpreting the Bible: A Handbook of Terms and Methods.

Handbook of Women Biblical Interpreters: A Historical and Biographical Guide

  • Authors: Marion Ann Taylor and Agnes Choi
  • Publisher: Baker
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Pages: 592

The history of female interpreters of the Bible is a neglected area of study. Marion Taylor presents a one-volume reference tool that introduces readers to a wide array of female Bible interpreters from the entire history of Christianity, from the early church to the twenty-first century. Her research has implications for understanding biblical interpretation—especially the history of interpretation—and the contemporary study of women and the Bible.

Contributions by over 125 top scholars introduce foremothers of the faith who address interpretive issues continuing relevance in faith communities today, such as women’s roles in the church and synagogue and the idea of religious feminism. Women’s interpretations also raise awareness about differences in the ways women and men may read the Scriptures in light of their differing life experiences. This text will prove useful to students, scholars, and pastors, who will be inspired, provoked, and challenged by the women introduced in the handbook. It provides a foundation for further detailed research and analysis.

This handbook is a gold mine, a must for all who care about women and religion or the history of the reception of the biblical texts. Page after page, article after article, I found myself riveted by what I was learning.

Dale C. Allison Jr., Errett M. Grable Professor of New Testament and Early Christianity, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary

For over 1,600 years now, women have been carefully studying the Bible. Strangely, scholars have not seemed to wonder what they having been thinking about it all this time. Through pioneering and painstaking research, the Handbook of Women Biblical Interpreters brilliantly puts on display the insights and reflections of half the population on the most important book in the history of the world. I have been waiting eagerly for this handbook, and I will henceforth consult it frequently and with delight. All serious students of the Bible need to add it to their collection—especially those who don’t think they need it.

Timothy Larsen, McManis Professor of Christian Thought, Wheaton College

This exhilarating volume can justly be described as one of the finest fruits yet to be harvested from the past half century of work on women’s history and women’s relationships to the interpretation of the Bible from the early church to the present. Marion Ann Taylor has included a judicious but generous selection of women biblical interpreters, individual contributors rank among the world’s experts, and the articles themselves frequently treat readers to excerpts from these women’s original writings. Those who go in search of particular entries will find themselves drawn to read more than what they went looking for because the stories encapsulated here are by turns surprising, fascinating, wry, poignant, and heartening.

—John L. Thompson, professor of historical theology, Fuller Theological Seminary

This deeply researched and beautifully organized volume fills a huge gap; one which most biblical scholars and church historians never noticed was there. It yields insight into how richly and variously the Bible functioned in diverse communities, from late antiquity to modern times, as reflected in the lives and writings of remarkable women. The history of biblical interpretation will never look the same again.

Ellen F. Davis, Amos Ragan Kearns Professor of Bible and Practical Theology, Duke Divinity School

What an extraordinary, fascinating, enthralling, moving, and mind-expanding volume! This guide has achieved a vital recovery of interpretive sources and makes it clear that these interpreters must be explored and seriously considered not only by those thirsting to find women’s voices but also by anyone who desires to be comprehensively informed about the true scope and history of biblical interpretation.

John Goldingay, David Allan Hubbard Professor of Old Testament, Fuller Theological Seminary

This most welcome handbook provides a wealth of information about an overlooked dimension of the history of biblical interpretation, the contribution of women interpreters. A fine collection of contributors focus on a wide variety of women interpreters through all periods of history. The array of interpreters covered here is breathtaking when one reads the biographies of those who, against deep odds and through major difficulties, provided biblical understandings that resonate today in many places. Marion Ann Taylor has made a real contribution in a number of ways with this expertly edited volume which recovers and analyzes women’s voices. This splendid work deserves a primary place among biblical interpretation resources and much praise for its extensive and exciting discoveries.

Donald K. McKim, editor, Dictionary of Major Biblical Interpreters

This handbook is as important as it is fascinating—important for its unparalleled ability to give ear to voices long forgotten, often silenced, and fascinating for the way it turns the spotlight on the difficult but spectacular story of how women have engaged the Scriptures as they worked to take their rightful places in pulpits, at lecterns, and around the tables of biblical interpretation. Turning page after page, I found myself sometimes amazed, sometimes humbled, and often inspired by the courage and wisdom of the biblical interpreters whose lives and contributions are here gathered.

Joel B. Green, professor of New Testament interpretation, Fuller Theological Seminary

What a gift and an invitation this book is! For too long I have been frustrated at my own lack of knowledge about the history of reception of the Bible , in particular, the history of women’s interpretive engagement with the Bible. With neither the knowledge of where to begin or even a sense of what I was looking for, I was helpless. Marion Taylor’s astonishing book changes everything. The judicious choice of women interpreters from antiquity to the twentieth century, the succinct but informative articles, and the immensely valuable bibliographies suddenly make it possible to teach and to write about women’s interpretation of the Bible throughout history. I can’t wait to get started.

Carol A. Newsom, Charles Howard Candler Professor of Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, Emory University

The Handbook of Women Biblical Interpreters is an elegantly written collection of entries examining women’s influential reflections on Scripture and their own female identity. Each entry provides an enticing glimpse of a woman’s engagement with the biblical text and frames her contribution in its historical setting. These readings of Scripture speak afresh into our own time, enriching and invigorating our understanding of the Bible.

Lynn H. Cohick, professor of New Testament, Wheaton College

Taylor and Choi provide a fascinating glimpse into the stories and writings of women across two thousand years of history. We are introduced to such diverse biblical interpreters as Elizabeth Achtemeier, Marie Guyart, Hildegard of Bingen, Julian of Norwich, Dorothy Sayers, Sojourner Truth, and Harriet Beecher Stowe. Bringing together 180 female interpreters into a single volume provides a rare gift, since women’s voices have often been neglected in the history of interpretation. This handbook is a unique and valuable resource for any seeking to understand Scripture by listening to the historical community of faith.

Jeannine Brown, professor of New Testament, Bethel Seminary

The strength of this volume arises from the range of interpreters of the Bible, the theological spectrum they represent, and the new doors that they open on history. To cover so many women, many of whom were silenced or forgotten, and to do so with evenness and compression is a remarkable achievement. Anyone interested in the history of biblical interpretation, preaching, and Bible teaching will find essential, captivating reading in these pages.

—Paul Scott Wilson, professor of homiletics, Emmanuel College, University of Toronto

Marion Ann Taylor is a professor of Old Testament at Wycliffe College, University of Toronto, where she has taught for more than 25 years. She has devoted her scholarly research to the history of the interpretation of the Bible and has recently focused on women interpreters of the Bible in the nineteenth century. She is coeditor of Recovering Nineteenth-Century Women Interpreters of the Bible.

Prima Scriptura: An Introduction to New Testament Interpretation

  • Author: N. Clayton Croy
  • Publisher: Baker Academic
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Pages: 272

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This engaging introduction to New Testament exegesis will appeal to seminarians and undergraduates across the academic spectrum. Clayton Croy, the author of a successful Greek textbook and an expert on Bible study pedagogy, provides an accessible, holistic overview of the entire interpretive process. He argues that while Scripture occupies a place of primary importance in faith and life, it does not do so in a vacuum. It operates in conjunction with two thousand years of Christian tradition, Spirit-guided human reason, and experience. Scripture’s authority is therefore primary but not exclusive. Croy begins with the preparation of the interpreter, proceeds to the analysis of the text, and concludes with discussion of the message of Scripture in the context of modern faith communities. He combines a step-by-step plan for historical exegesis with substantive discussion of broader hermeneutical issues.

Prima Scriptura interacts with recent scholarship and maintains both academic rigor and an engaging style, incorporating anecdotes, humor, scriptural illustrations, and examples of the practical payoff of disciplined interpretation. Each chapter includes discussion questions and suggestions for further reading. Professors and students working in exegesis and hermeneutics will value this work.

Clayton Croy’s combination of Christian theology, hermeneutical theory, and exegetical practice is ecumenical, fluent, and comprehensive, which allows for a versatility uncommon in introductory texts on this topic. Croy grounds his treatment of exegetical practices on the theological nature of Scripture and on the sort of faithful interpreter who can best render a sacred text for today’s world. Each section concludes with excellent annotated bibliographies of resources and teacher-friendly exercises that will make this book useful for the classroom.

Robert Walter Wall, Paul T. Walls Professor of Scripture and Wesleyan Studies, Seattle Pacific University

This book equips Christian ministry students for mature and critical engagement of author-centered, text-centered, and reader-centered interpretative theories, warning against facile or faddish escape into one or another extreme. Croy provides a clear and sufficient guide to the art of asking good questions of the biblical text and of finding reliable answers, laying a solid foundation for the practice of a wide range of exegetical skills and the development of a sound hermeneutical model. His driving interest is to equip students to interpret Scripture in order to practice its truth in every sphere of life—from the personal to the political, from the individual to the international—fulfilling Johannes Bengel’s vision for biblical interpretation: apply yourself fully to the text, and apply the text fully to yourself. I look forward to using it in my own classroom.

David A. deSilva, Trustees’ Distinguished Professor of New Testament and Greek, Ashland Theological Seminary

Prima Scriptura does not stop with its crystal-clear, step-by-step instruction; it also guides the reader into informed reflection on the hermeneutical issues that all interpreters face. The work is sophisticated yet accessible, serious yet lively, faithful yet critical. Packed with useful resources, this book is what ministerial and doctoral students need and what their exegesis teachers have been looking for.

Susan R. Garrett, professor of New Testament, Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary

Everything that comes up in interpretation is here; the author somehow managed not to turn this book in to a 1,000 page door stop and learned to summarize and simplify and move on. . . . Interpretation is learned by doing, not by reading about it. But you need a good book to get you started, and Croy’s book is that book. I highly recommend [it].

Jesus Creed blog

Students of the Bible wrestling with issues of hermeneutics and application as they interpret it stand to benefit from N. Clayton Croy’s exegetical handbook. . . . [It] offers a basic introduction to text criticism, lexical study, grammar, structure, genre . . ., historical context, and the use of commentaries, all in a step-by-step format, articulately, and with helpful illustrations, exercises, and richly annotated bibliographies . . . along the way. Commendably, Croy also discusses at considerable length textual connections and theological interpretation. . . . While it obviously concerns hermeneutics, the emphasis on preparation and the spiritual qualifications of confessional readers gives the book a strong devotional flavor, shared by the final two stages of his method, contemporizing and appropriating the text obediently. This flavor and the book’s hermeneutical awareness are its outstanding strengths.


Croy has managed to produce, in short compass, a manual that capably handles questions about the hermeneutics of meaning, the process of basic exegesis, and the main obstacles and challenges of applying the biblical text to the modern situation all in one place. . . . Croy’s text has a number of useful appended items. . . . This book was a joy to read and offers a treasure trove of tips for exegesis as well as numerous witty anecdotes. Croy is remarkably comfortable discussing both theoretical as well as practical matters. . . . I highly recommend this book to anyone interested in hermeneutics and theological interpretation of Scripture.

Expository Times

N. Clayton Croy is an associate professor of New Testament at Trinity Lutheran Seminary in Columbus, Ohio. His previous books include a commentary on 3 Maccabees, The Mutilation of Mark’s Gospel, and A Primer of Biblical Greek. He also contributed to the Dictionary of New Testament Backgrounds.

Practicing Theological Interpretation: Engaging Biblical Texts for Faith and Formation

  • Author: Joel B. Green
  • Publisher: Baker Academic
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Pages: 160

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Much is written about the theory of theological interpretation, but how does it function when it comes to actually working with biblical texts? This volume shows that theological interpretation is not so much an exegetical method as it is a practice concerned with Scripture’s role in the faith and formation of persons and ecclesial communities. Biblical scholar Joel Green demonstrates both the practice of theological interpretation and the fruitfulness of this approach to reading biblical texts, providing students with helpful ways of wrestling with knotty interpretive issues. He also explores how theological inquiry can coexist with rigorous academic study of the Bible.

For many years Joel Green has been a leading advocate for interpreting Scripture theologically. In this short volume all of his wide learning is on display as he deftly works his way through some of the contested issues surrounding theological interpretation of Scripture. This volume represents a wonderfully accessible window into theological interpretation by one of its most accomplished practitioners.

Stephen Fowl, professor of New Testament, Loyola University Maryland

In a compact and carefully argued presentation, a prominent New Testament scholar shares his convictions about proper apprehension of the New Testament’s word of address. This serves as an introduction to many of the key points of critical evaluation in what is now called theological interpretation. He helpfully locates the theoretical discussion of narrative, the ‘model reader,’ history, and the Rule of Faith in relationship to the reading of New Testament texts. Informed, engaged, accessible.

Christopher Seitz, professor of biblical interpretation, Wycliffe College, University of Toronto

I warmly welcome Joel Green’s book on the theological interpretation of Scripture. Contributions have already been made to this area, but this is the most mature, careful, and well read to date. Biblical studies is in the process of exploring paradigms beyond historical-critical methods (plural). The most recent are reception history and theological interpretation. Green seeks to hear the voice of God through Scripture, which, after all, is the main task of exegesis. This book will also help to span the gulf between theologians and exegetes.

Anthony C. Thiselton, former head of theology, University of Nottingham

Joel Green’s Practicing Theological Interpretation charts a way through the thickets of interpretive theory and practice for those who are committed to the role of Scripture in the faith and formation of persons and ecclesial communities. Chapters devoted to the role of the reader, the Rule of Faith, and historical study model both critical theoretical reflection and practical implementation, offering concrete interpretations of various biblical texts. Stimulating, learned, and timely, Green’s essays provide guidance for those who desire to harvest the fruit of biblical scholarship for nourishing the formation of Christian faith and practice.

Marianne Meye Thompson, George Eldon Ladd Professor of New Testament, Fuller Theological Seminary

Joel Green’s Practicing Theological Interpretation testifies to his deep engagement with the past 20 years of this important movement in contemporary biblical interpretation. He gently introduces the topic to beginning readers, reminds intermediate readers of nuances they may have missed (and rewards them with instructive readings of exemplary biblical texts), and for advanced audiences he marks out a clear summary of his approach as a landmark for further exploration. Green’s valuable contribution to the discussions of biblical theology and theological interpretation should draw in a new generation of practitioners for his approach to attaining vibrant, convincing, compelling readings of the Bible.

—A. K. M. Adam, lecturer in New Testament studies, University of Glasgow

Joel B. Green is a professor of New Testament interpretation and associate dean of the Center for Advanced Theological Studies at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California. He is the author or editor of numerous books, including Dictionary of Scripture and Ethics, Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, Introducing the New Testament, and commentaries on Luke and 1 Peter. He is also editor-in-chief of the Journal of Theological Interpretation.

Reading Scripture with the Church: Toward a Hermeneutic for Theological Interpretation

  • Authors: A. K. M. Adam, Stephen E. Fowl, Kevin J. Vanhoozer, and Francis Watson
  • Publisher: Baker Academic
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Pages: 160

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Reading Scripture with the Church is the result of years of debate and discussion among four leading scholars of biblical interpretation. In this volume, ideal as a supplementary hermeneutics textbook, each of the four contributors offers insights on his particular theory of theological interpretation of Scripture.

A. K. M. Adam suggests that interpreters break free from the constraining effects of approaching interpretation as translation, embrace the abundance of meaning in Scripture, and envision biblical theology as “signifying practice.” Stephen Fowl interacts with Thomas Aquinas’ interpretive practice and advocates a model of “bounded plurality” of meaning in the “literal sense” of Scripture that should inform our hermeneutical judgments. Kevin Vanhoozer describes a method of theological interpretation based on viewing the Bible as God’s communicative action, given with a certain intention and given to elicit a certain response from the reader. Francis Watson adopts the single identity of Jesus Christ, as revealed in the four Gospels, as a hermeneutical model describing the possibility and limits of plurality in interpretation.

Each author also responds to the other three. Points of agreement are affirmed, and disagreement clarified. The goal is to lead students to embrace the task of theological interpretation with energy, caution, and precision.

These elegant scholarly essays by four of the leading advocates for theological interpretation of Scripture in the church are a splendid intervention in current debates about the nature, settings, and ends of biblical interpretation and deserve to be pondered by all who are interested in the place of Scripture in church and theology.

John Webster, chair of systematic theology, University of Aberdeen

The four interactive essays in this book are an important step in the effort to move biblical interpretation forward. The authors invite us to move from an excessive reliance on particular historical methods to an integration of these with the theological practices and insights of God’s people from the past and present. The book signals an ecumenical optimism springing from what has already been achieved and points out ways to bring about a deeper joy in ‘the encouragement of the Scriptures’ and a closer union with the center of unity, Jesus Christ, who is still, in the power of the Holy Spirit, making himself known in and through his church.

—Francis Martin, professor of sacred Scripture, Sacred Heart Major Seminary

The significance of this project is its juxtaposition of contributions from four major voices in recent theological hermeneutics. . . . Reading Scripture with the Church thus provides a handy entry-point into . . . what is now an expanding conversation around theological hermeneutics of Christian Scripture.

Review of Biblical Literature

Four scholars, two from New Testament studies and two from theology itself, have each contributed an essay addressing some aspect of the theological interpretation of the Bible. . . . The authors’ closing responses invite the reader into the dialogue that has engaged these theologians for several years. Both biblical scholars and theologians will find this book of interest.

Bible Today

The essays and responses in this volume bear witness to what is an encouraging renewal of an approach to the Bible that has much significance for church life and may restore balance in academic biblical study. The four authors are good representatives of this development. . . . All the essays and responses are thoughtful and stimulating.

Catholic Biblical Quarterly

A. K. M. Adam is a lecturer in New Testament studies at the University of Glasgow.

Stephen E. Fowl is a professor of New Testament at Loyola University Maryland.

Kevin J. Vanhoozer is Blanchard Professor of Theology at Wheaton College Graduate School in Wheaton, Illinois. He is the author or editor of many books, including Everyday Theology, Is There a Meaning in This Text?, and the award-winning Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible.

Francis Watson is a professor in the Department of Theology and Religion at Durham University.

The Virtuous Reader: Old Testament Narrative and Interpretive Virtue

  • Author: Richard S. Briggs
  • Publisher: Baker Academic
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Pages: 272

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This volume offers a rich and thought-provoking portrait, or series of portraits, of the virtues required to read the Old Testament well. Biblical scholar Richard Briggs provides an exegetical exploration of “interpretive virtue” by carefully reading five Old Testament passages that reflect core virtues: humility, wisdom, trust, charity, and receptivity. The result is an example of theological interpretation that demonstrates the interplay between text and reader. Briggs approaches the biblical text with academic rigor and precision while maintaining an openness to the formative intentions of the biblical writers.

Situated in the Old Testament, though embracing the entire Christian canon, The Virtuous Reader breathes life into essential questions older than the rabbis and the church’s mothers and fathers. With sensitivity, the author invites us to consider those happy and healthy dispositions that Scripture itself elicits from those who would understand it. His learning is comprehensive, engaging not only ‘the usual suspects’ but also interpreters as varied as Wittgenstein and Mark Twain. Most important, by his gentle incisiveness Richard Briggs models the virtues of which he writes. A higher compliment than that I cannot render.

C. Clifton Black, Otto A. Piper of Biblical Theology, Princeton Theological Seminary

This is a thorough-going, compendious critique of recent scholarship on readerly virtues as a condition of exegetical probity. Richard Briggs has given us ways to think coherently about achieving that trust in Scripture as Word of God that the text itself enjoins, yet without descending into a naivete that would undermine the ‘tough-minded’ critical virtues. A ‘state of the question’ study—and a contribution of great value.

David Lyle Jeffrey, distinguished professor of literature and the humanities, Baylor University

A terrific book! Briggs significantly advances the conversations about biblical interpretation and Christian character through his rich exegetical studies and his philosophical and theological insights. This book should be read by biblical scholars, theologians, ethicists, and pastors alike.

—L. Gregory Jones, professor of theology, Duke University

Richard Briggs combines sophisticated theological hermeneutics with close attention to the biblical text and a probing interaction with the literature of biblical commentary, both ancient and modern. The result is immensely readable—fresh discussions leading to readings of the Old Testament that are both memorable and persuasive.

Walter Moberly, professor of theology and religion, Durham University

This fascinating contribution focuses on the question, what kind of reader should we be in order to read the Bible well? Extremely well informed both about hermeneutics and philosophical conceptions of virtue, Briggs aims to show connections between the act of reading and the character of the reader. The Old Testament itself, he argues, not only implicitly projects an ideal virtuous character within its texts but also gives clues to the kinds of virtues expected of the reader. It is a most welcome addition to any scholarly and pastoral library on the Old Testament.

Gordon McConville, professor of Old Testament theology, University of Gloucestershire

Richard S. Briggs is a lecturer in Old Testament and director of biblical studies at Cranmer Hall, St. John’s College, Durham University. He is the author of Words in Action: Speech Act Theory and Biblical Interpretation and Reading the Bible Wisely.

Bible Interpreters of the 20th Century

  • Editors: Walter A. Elwell and J. D. Weaver
  • Publisher: Baker
  • Publication Date: 1999
  • Pages: 447

In order to understand and appreciate contemporary evangelicalism, it is important to become familiar with modern evangelical Bible interpreters. The editors have produced a survey of thirty-five twentieth-century evangelical biblical scholars to provide an illuminating glimpse into the lives of thirty-five influential biblical interpreters. These interpreters represent different denominational and theological perspectives. In examining the life and legacy of these evangelicals, each entry includes biographical facts, theological development, scholarly contributions, and evaluations. Bible Interpreters of the 20th Century makes a solid reference resource for scholars, students, and pastors.

Walter A. Elwell earned a BA and an MA from Wheaton College and went on to receive his PhD from the University of Edinburgh. He has been an instructor in Greek at North Park College in Chicago, Illinois, and a professor of Bible at Belhaven College in Jackson, Mississippi. He currently serves as professor of biblical studies and dean of the graduate school at Wheaton College. Elwell functions as a consultant to both the Evangelical Christian Publishers Association and the Evangelical Book Club. He has edited numerous reference works, including Evangelical Dictionary of Theology and Handbook of Evangelical Theologians and is the co-author of Encountering the New Testament.

J. D. Weaver has worked as a senior acquisitions editor of academic and reference books at Baker Book House.

A Basic Guide to Interpreting the Bible: Playing by the Rules

  • Author: Robert H. Stein
  • Edition: 2nd
  • Publisher: Baker Academic
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Pages: 240

Learn how to identify various biblical genres, understand the meaning of biblical texts, and apply that meaning to contemporary life. Stein provides lessons on multiple biblical genres, including historical narratives, legal codes, poetry, wisdom literature, prophecy, idioms, parables, hyperbole, and letters. Revised to reflect Stein’s current thinking and changes to the discipline over the past decade, this new edition of a classic text is an effective teaching tool for a host of biblical study settings.

This is an ideal book both for university and seminary courses and for laypersons who desire a guide to understanding the Scriptures.

Thomas R. Schreiner, James Buchanan Harrison Professor of Biblical Interpretation, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary

The reader benefits from clear definitions of key concepts and creative examples of these concepts in action, as well as exercises that can be used to augment the learning process.

Jeannine K. Brown, professor of New Testament, Bethel Seminary

The quality and terseness with which this book has been written and the way the various topics have been discussed is outstanding . . . it even bids the academic to examine whether he or she is still clear about the basics.

—Bálint Károly Zabán, Review of Biblical Literature

What the reader will find helpful, especially when using this book for teaching purposes, is its numerous scriptural examples, timely illustrations, and clarifying schematics.

James D. Hernando, Encounter Journal

Robert H. Stein (PhD, Princeton Theological Seminary) was most recently senior professor of New Testament interpretation at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky. He previously taught at Bethel Seminary. A world-renowned scholar of the Synoptic Gospels, Stein has published several books, including Luke, A Basic Guide to Interpreting the Bible, Studying the Synoptic Gospels, and Jesus the Messiah.

Protestant Biblical Interpretation: A Textbook of Hermeneutics

  • Author: Bernard Ramm
  • Edition: 3rd
  • Publisher: Baker
  • Publication Date: 1999
  • Pages: 320

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Since its publication in 1950, Protestant Biblical Interpretation has been a standard introduction to hermeneutics in evangelical colleges and seminaries. “Hermeneutics,” writes the author, “is the science and art of Biblical interpretation. . . . As such it forms one of the most important members of the theological sciences. This is especially true for conservative Protestantism, which looks on the Bible as. . . the only authoritative voice of God to man”.

After surveying the history of biblical interpretation, the author devotes seventy pages to explicating the Protestant system of hermeneutics. He then discusses the doctrinal, devotional, and practical uses of the Bible. Following a chapter on the hermeneutical dimension of the problem of biblical inerrancy and secular science, he concludes with chapters on the interpretation of types, prophecy, and parables.

Bernard Ramm (1916–92) taught for over 40 years at evangelical colleges and seminaries. He wrote several books, including The Christian View of Science and Scripture, After Fundamentalism: The Future of Evangelical Theology, and Offense to Reason: The Theology of Sin.

Scripture and Truth

  • Authors: D. A. Carson and John D. Woodbridge
  • Publisher: Baker
  • Publication Date: 1992
  • Pages: 448

In what sense is the Bible the Word of God for Christians today? How should we think of the truthfulness of the Bible?

Scripture and Truth seeks to answer these key questions. It synthesizes, as have few other works, the apologetic reasons for an evangelical defense of biblical inerrancy. From a biblical, historical, or theological perspective each essay examines a challenge to belief in the integrity and reliability of Scripture. What emerges from these essays is a full-orbed restatement of this evangelical doctrine.

First published in 1983, Scripture and Truth will continue to strengthen the faith of many of God’s people in his reliable and truthful Word.

Here is a book which is more than a mere defense of biblical inerrancy; it seeks also to explore the implications of such a view of the way in which we approach and handle Scripture.

—Peter Misselbrook, Evangelical Times

D. A. Carson (PhD, University of Cambridge) is research professor of New Testament at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. He is author or editor of numerous books, many of which are found in the D. A. Carson Collection and the D. A. Carson “Love of God” Collectionn Collection.

John D. Woodbridge is research professor of Church history and the history of Christian thought at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois. He has taught at Trinity since 1970. He has also served as a senior editor of Christianity Today.

Hermeneutics: Principles and Processes of Biblical Interpretation

  • Authors: Henry A. Virkler and Karelynne Gerber Ayayo
  • Edition: 2nd
  • Publisher: Baker
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Pages: 256

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This accessible text, which combines hermeneutical theory with practical steps for exegesis, has been translated into eight languages and has been used in a variety of settings to teach students how to study the Bible responsibly. The authors outline a five-step hermeneutical procedure that includes:

[A] helpful and accessible volume . . . Virkler deals with most of the key issues in hermeneutics. . . . He does so in language that is understandable to non-specialists. . . . His explication of the various hermeneutical approaches is evenhanded and readable. This would be an excellent text to teach hermeneutics in a church setting. Its accessibility, fair-mindedness, and quality make it a work with wide appeal. Recommended as an introduction to biblical study for any non-specialist.

—Steve W. Lemke, Southwestern Journal of Theology

A useful introduction to the field from a psychologist who teaches at the intersection of psychology and theology. . . . [The] emphasis on practical application is a noteworthy goal which the author consistently addresses throughout the book. . . . Several features of the book commend themselves. In 250 pages the author addresses the major topics which a textbook in a hermeneutics course must cover. . . . His sensitivity to the fundamental hermeneutical problems of continuity-discontinuity . . . and cultural dynamics . . . is especially noteworthy. The chosen format is well suited to classroom use. It offers explicit goals stated at the head of each chapter, clear definitions, ‘brain teasers,’ summaries, practical ’exercises’ (questions for discussion), and resource lists.

—Timothy S. Laniak, Bulletin for Biblical Research

This edition includes developments in hermeneutics over the past two decades. Written primarily as a textbook on biblical interpretation, it will be of value to church leaders who have never had any serious study in this area or who are looking for a refresher.


Henry A. Virkler (PhD, Georgia State University) is professor of psychology at Palm Beach Atlantic University. He has written five books, including A Christian’s Guide to Critical Thinking.

Karelynne Gerber Ayayo (ThD, Boston University) is assistant professor of New Testament at Palm Beach Atlantic University.

Biblical Interpretation Then and Now: Contemporary Hermeneutics in the Light of the Early Church

  • Author: David S. Dockery
  • Publisher: Baker
  • Publication Date: 2000
  • Pages: 248

Biblical Interpretation Then and Now examines the use of the Bible in the early church and relates apostolic and patristic interpretation to contemporary trends in hermeneutics. Dockery traces the developments in early Christian interpretation, noting both continuities and discontinuities. His study begins with Jesus, and observes the developments in interpretation to the time of the historic Council of Chalcedon, noting the philosophy, theology, and traditions which influenced each period.

Provides readers with a generally able and well documented survey of patristic biblical interpretation and a significant discussion of the potential importance of earlier patterns of interpretation to contemporary hermeneutical discussion.

—Richard A. Muller, Calvin Theological Journal

Those seeking a general introduction to patristic hermeneutics will be grateful once again for this book’s availability.

—Amos Yong, Religious Studies Review

A useful survey for beginning students: the writing is clear, the overall appraisal of the period follows generally accepted lines, and the attention to contemporary concerns can help the reader approach the topic with a valuable perspective.

—Moisés Silva, Westminster Theological Journal

A well-documented, readable, and welcome addition to one’s theological library.

—Roy B. Zuck and Joe Walters, Bibliotheca Sacra

David S. Dockery is president of Union University in Jackson, Tenn. Formerly professor of New Testament at Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, he is the author or editor of over ten books, including Interpreting the New Testament, Theologians of the Baptist Tradition, and the Holman Concise Bible Commentary.

The Right Doctrine from the Wrong Texts?: Essays on the Use of the Old Testament in the New

  • Author: G. K. Beale
  • Publisher: Baker
  • Publication Date: 1994
  • Pages: 448

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If Paul and other New Testament authors were publishing today, would scholars accept their exegetical methods?

This collection of essays presents various perspectives concerning the hermeneutical issue of whether Jesus and the apostles quoted Old Testament texts with respect for their broader Old Testament context. Each of the contributors debates the interpretive understandings by which Old Testament texts are quoted and applied in the New Testament. Were New Testament teachers and authors simply children of rabbinic midrashic scholarship? Did they revere the original context of passages they quoted or fill them with different meaning? What presuppositions about the Old Testament guided their approaches?

[Beale] has deliberately chosen articles from a variety of viewpoints, so that articles by authors as diverse as Roger Nicole, Barnabas Lindars, C. H. Dodd, Howard Marshall, and Albert Sundberg are found in the same collection. . . . The collection is well-chosen, and all interested in this area of biblical study will be grateful to have such a useful tool.

—Allan M. Harman, Reformed Theological Review

G. K. Beale (PhD, University of Cambridge) is Kenneth T. Wessner Chair of Biblical Studies and professor of New Testament at Wheaton College Graduate School. He is the author or editor of several books, including commentaries on Revelation and 1 and 2 Thessalonians.

Introducing Theological Interpretation of Scripture: Recovering a Christian Practice

  • Author: Daniel J. Treier
  • Publisher: Baker
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Pages: 160

In the wake of the schism during the past two centuries between biblical studies and theology, a new movement has developed, seeking to bridge this modern gap. This hermeneutical movement, which hearkens back to aspects of pre-critical interpretation, has been labeled the theological interpretation of Scripture (TIS) and focuses on the contexts of canon, creed, and church. While the trend is in its infancy, it is rapidly gaining momentum.

This is an introduction in the best sense of that term. With uncommon clarity and grace, Treier provides students of theological interpretation with a reliable and appropriately critical map of the terrain. Because Treier is both generous in his treatment of others’ work and thoughtful in presenting his own views, students will find him an enlightening and wise guide.

—Stephen Fowl, Loyola College, Maryland

With an impressive mastery of the secondary literature of this new field, Treier shows how the disciplines of historical, systematic, and practical theology play into theological interpretation of Scripture. Treier suggests, like many in this new movement, that a recovery of ancient Christian practices and postures toward Holy Scripture opens the theological imagination and allows for fresh readings, informed by historical criticisms but not captured by them.

—Kathryn Greene-McCreight, St. John’s Episcopal Church, New Haven, CT

Many voices today clamor for the recovery of theological interpretation, from many corners and for diverse reasons. For those concerned with the significance of the church for reading Scripture, and the significance of Scripture for the church, this is a renaissance most welcome. So many different voices, though, can leave us confused—not only on the finer points of the discussion, but even about its most basic question: What is theological interpretation? We need a map, and this is precisely what Daniel Treier has provided: a map that will be as useful to those already engaged in the conversation as it is crucial for those trying to gain their first bearings.

—Joel B. Green, professor of New Testament interpretation, Fuller Theological Seminary

Daniel Treier is one of the brightest scholars working at the intersection of Scripture, hermeneutics, and theology in the evangelical academy today. Here he offers a masterful survey of the landscape and shows how evangelicals can join with Catholic scholars and others in moving the discussion forward.

—Timothy George, dean, Beeson Divinity School

Daniel J. Treier (PhD, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School) is associate professor of theology at Wheaton College. He is the author of Virtue and the Voice of God: Toward Theology as Wisdom and the coeditor of several books, including The Cambridge Companion to Evangelical Theology and the award-winning Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible.

Scripture as Communication: Introducing Biblical Hermeneutics

  • Author: Jeannine K. Brown
  • Publisher: Baker Academic
  • Publication Date: 2007
  • Pages: 320

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Is the Bible just a book of ancient Israelite and Christian history and practices to be read? Or are we engaging in a more interactive practice when we study God’s word? Jeannine K. Brown believes that communication is at the heart of what we do when we open the Bible, that we are actively engaging God in a conversation that can be life changing. By learning about how Scripture communicates, modern readers can extract much more meaning out of the text than they could if simply reading the Bible as though it was a list of rules or a collection of stories. In Scripture as Communication, Brown offers professors, students, church leaders, and laity a basic guide to the theory and practice of biblical interpretation, helping them understand our engagement with Scriptures as primarily a communicative act.

This is a very well written and engaging book that should prove to be a very helpful aid to both instructors and students specializing in the field of biblical hermeneutics and communication theory.

—Tony Costa, Review of Biblical Literature

Jeannine K. Brown is associate professor of New Testament and associate academic dean at Bethel Seminary in St. Paul, Minnesota.


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