When he claimed to be the Messiah predicted in the Old Testament, Jesus interpreted Old Testament types and predictions with reference to himself. In fact, he read the entire Old Testament as pointing to himself (Luke 24:25–27, 45–47). Jesus affirmed (Matt 5:17), sharpened (Matt 5:27–28), or even suspended the Old Testament (Mark 7:19). His use of Scripture, in turn, became the model for the early Church’s interpretation of the Old Testament.
—Faithlife Study Bible, Lexham Press
Best Commentaries on Christ in the Old Testament
ISBNs: 978-0-8308-1470-1Learn more
Manlio Simonetti, Thomas C. Oden, Christopher A. Hall, Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture Complete Set Updated Edition (ACCS) (29 vols.), InterVarsity Press, 1998–2010, 11,757 pp.
The Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture (ACCS) does what very few of today’s students of the Bible can do for themselves. The vast array of writings from the Church Fathers—including many that are available only in the ancient languages—have been combed for their comment on Scripture. From these results, scholars with a deep knowledge of the Fathers and a heart for the Church have hand-selected material for each volume, shaping, annotating, and introducing it to today’s readers. Each portion of commentary has been chosen for its salient insight, its rhetorical power, and its faithful representation of the consensual exegesis of the early Church. Included in this series is the full text of all 29 commentaries from the Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture (ACCS). Arranged canonically, each volume allows the living voices of the Church in its formative centuries to speak as they engage the sacred pages of Scripture. Now even more accessible in digital format, this series will prove an uncommon companion for theological interpretation, spiritual reading, and wholesome teaching and preaching. The Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture (29 vols.) (ACCS) is an ecumenical project, promoting a vital link of communication between the varied Christian traditions of today and their common ancient ancestors in the faith. On this shared ground we listen as eight centuries of leading pastoral theologians gather around the text of Scripture and offer their best theological, spiritual, and pastoral insights.
- Level: Intermediate
- Type: Expository
- Perspectives: Patristic
“All who are interested in Bible interpretation will welcome the forthcoming multivolume series, Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture. Here the insights of scores of early Church fathers will be assembled and made readily available for significant passages throughout the Bible and Apocrypha. It is hard to think of a more worthy ecumenical project to be undertaken by InterVarsity Press.">— Bruce M. Metzger, professor emeritus of New Testament, Princeton Theological Seminary
ISBNs: 978-1441250285Learn more
D. A. Carson and G. K. Beale, Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament, Baker Academic 2007, 1280 pp.
Readers of the New Testament often encounter quotes or allusions to the Old Testament that may be unfamiliar or obscure. In this volume, G. K. Beale and D. A. Carson have brought together a distinguished team of scholars to isolate, catalog, and comment on both the obvious Old Testament quotations and the more subtle allusions found in the New Testament. The result is a comprehensive commentary on the Old Testament references that appear from Matthew through Revelation. It is a vital resource for the reference library of every student of the New Testament.
- Level: Intermediate
- Type: Technical
- Perspectives: Evangelical, Reformed
“Finally we have a work that examines the use of the Old Testament in the New Testament and covers the entirety of the New Testament in a single volume. Pastors, students, and scholars will profit from the careful attention to both the Old and New Testament contexts in which the citations occur, and they will be enriched by the theological depth represented in this important book.”
— Thomas R. Schreiner
ISBNs: 978-0830896288Learn more
Christopher J. H. Wright is convinced that Jesus’ own story is rooted in the story of Israel. In Knowing Jesus through the Old Testament, Wright traces the life of Christ as it is illuminated by the Old Testament. He describes God’s design for Israel as it is fulfilled in the story of Jesus.
- Level: Basic
- Type: Technical
- Perspectives: Evangelical, Conservative, Anglican
“This book is not a mere survey of Old Testament Messianic proof-texts lifted out of context, nor is it an attempt to "find Jesus" on every page of the Old Testament by fanciful intrpretations. Instead, it shows how Jesus himself and the New Testament writers understood and explained his identity, mission, and significance in the light of the whole of the Hebrew Scriptures. The manner and content of Wright's book is not only clear and informative but [also] exhilarating as well.”
— V. Philips Long, Regent College, Vancouver
Benjamin Merkle, Discontinuity to Continuity: A Survey of Dispensational and Covenantal Theologies, Lexham Press, 2020, 250 pp.
What is the proper way for one to understand how to put the Bible together? The questions surrounding the relation between the Old and New Testaments is as old as the Bible itself. And while many agree that Scripture speaks with one voice, understanding the particulars of certain aspects of the Bible can cause major disagreement. How are Christians to understand the land promise to Israel? Who is the proper subject of baptism? Does the Church supplant Israel, or do certain promises made to Israel remain today? In his book Discontinuity to Continuity, Benjamin Merkle seeks to help bring light to the debates between covenant theological systems and dispensationalism. Through his careful exposition of the various systems and their differences, Merkle helps readers understand the key issues in the debate. More light than heat, Merkle’s book will help readers of various persuasions reason with one another around the Scriptures.
- Level: Advanced
- Type: Technical
- Perspectives: Evangelical, Conservative
“Many of us don’t even realize when we read the Bible that we have certain presuppositions about how it all fits together. Yet how we relate the Old Testament to the New Testament not only informs how we view Jesus but also how we apply Scripture to the Church today. Thankfully Benjamin Merkle provides a fair-minded description of a range of approaches, including different forms of dispensationalism and classic Covenant Theology. Listen to Merkle to better understand not only other traditions but maybe even your own.”
— Kelly M. Kapic, Professor of Theological Studies, Covenant College
ISBNs: 978-0310535058Learn more
Andrew T. Abernathy, Interpreting the Old Testament Theologically: Essays in Honor of Willem A. VanGemeren, Zondervan, 2018, 352 pp.
"How should Christians read the Old Testament today? Answers to this question gravitate between two poles. Some pay little attention to the gap between the Old Testament and today, reading the Old Testament like a devotional allegory that points the Christian directly to Jesus. Others prioritize an Old Testament passage’s original context to such an extent that it is by no means clear if and how a given Old Testament text might bear witness to Christ and address the church. This volume is a tribute to Willem A. VanGemeren, an ecclesial scholar who operated amid the tension between understanding texts in their original context and their theological witness to Christ and the Church. The contributors in this volume share a conviction that Christians must read the Old Testament with a theological concern for how it bears witness to Christ and nourishes the Church, while not undermining the basic principles of exegesis. Two questions drive these essays as they address the topic of reading the Old Testament theologically. Christology. If the Old Testament bears witness to Christ, how do we move from an Old Testament text, theme, or book to Christ? Ecclesiology. If the Old Testament is meant to nourish the Church, how do Scriptures originally given to Israel address the Church today? The volume unfolds by first considering exegetical habits that are essential for interpreting the Old Testament theologically. Then several essays wrestle with how topics from select Old Testament books can be read theologically. Finally, it concludes by addressing several communal matters that arise when reading the Old Testament theologically."
- Level: Advanced
- Type: Technical
- Perspectives: Evangelical, Conservative
More Books on Christ in the Old Testament
Top Old Testament theologian R. W. L. Moberly is known for accessible and provocative writing. Old Testament Theology: Reading the Hebrew Bible as Christian Scripture questions what is necessary to understand the Hebrew Bible as a fundamental resource for Christian theology. This volume offers a creative example of theological interpretation, modeling a way of analyzing the Old Testament that considers the nature of the ancient biblical text while also questioning the difficulties that arise as believers study in a contemporary context. Moberly offers an in-depth study of key Old Testament passages, highlighting enduring existential issues in the Hebrew Bible and discussing Jewish readings alongside Christian readings. The volume, an overview of Old Testament Scripture, presents most of the major topics of Old Testament theology. Moberly also demonstrates a Christian approach to reading the Old Testament that combines the priorities of both scholarship and faith. Your Hebrew research is easier with the Logos edition of Old Testament Theology: Reading the Hebrew Bible as Christian Scripture. Scripture references appear on mouseover in your preferred Bible translation, and the book will instantly integrate into your digital library, allowing you to search your other resources for related topics and opinions.Learn more
To read the New Testament is to meet the Old Testament at every turn. But exactly how do Old Testament texts relate to their New Testament references and allusions? Moreover, what fruitful interpretive methods do New Testament texts demonstrate? Leading biblical scholars Walter Kaiser, Darrell Bock, and Peter Enns each present their answers to questions surrounding the use of the Old Testament in the New Testament. This volume introduces three approaches presently employed in the study of the uses of the Old Testament in the New Testament, especially in those instances where the New Testament authors discern the fulfillment of a prophetic element in the Old Testament text. The foundational issue concerns the relationship between an Old Testament author’s meaning and the meaning of that same passage when it is used by a New Testament author. Contributors address elements such as divine and human authorial intent, the context of Old Testament references, and theological grounds for an interpretive method. Each author applies his framework to specific texts so that readers can see how their methods work out in practice. Each contributor also receives a thorough critique from the other two authors. A one-stop reference for setting the scene and presenting approaches to the topic that respect the biblical text, Three Views on the New Testament Use of Old Testament gives readers the tools they need to develop their own views on this important subject.Learn more
Voicing one theme for the entire Bible and structuring all sermons around that idea may seem to be an impossible challenge. For veteran pastor and preaching professor Edmund Clowney, it will not do to preach a text from either the Old or New Testaments without fully preaching its ultimate and primary focus—the person and work of Jesus Christ. He writes, “To see the text in relation to Christ is to see it in its larger context, the context of God’s purpose in revelation.” Clowney’s rationale for emphasizing Christ’s presence in the Old Testament rests on the purpose of the Hebrew Scriptures. The Old Testament follows God’s one great plan for human history and redemption, and the plan is not only from him but also centers on him: his presence in his incarnate Son. The witness of the Scriptures to Christ is the reason they were written, so it is appropriate to emphasize this element in the Old Testament as well as in the New Testament.Learn more
"Cutting through the confusing array of interpretive strategies that claim the term “biblical theology,” Edward Klink and Darian Lockett consider five schools of thought regarding biblical theology and handle each in turn, defining and giving a brief developmental history for each one, and exploring each method through the lens of one contemporary scholar who champions it. Using a spectrum between history and theology, each of five “types” of biblical theology are identified as either “more theological” or “more historical” in concern and practice. The five approaches to biblical theology include:
- Biblical Theology as Historical Description—James Barr
- Biblical Theology as Historical Redemption—D. A. Carson
- Biblical Theology as Canonical Approach—Brevard S. Childs
- Biblical Theology as Theological Construction—Francis Watson
Best courses on Christ in the Old Testament
Explore the art and science of Bible interpretation, which teaches you how to become a good reader of the Bible so you will hear everything God says in his inspired Word. Dr. Leithart teaches a hermeneutical approach grounded in a robust theology of language, modeled after the way Jesus and the apostles interpreted the Old Testament and drawing on elements from patristic and medieval methods. Other crucial topics are discussed, such as the nature of texts, semantics, intertextuality, biblical allusions, and literary structure, all reinforced with a plethora of examples from both biblical and extrabiblical literature. All of this contributes to the main point of reading Scripture: to be conformed to the image of Jesus Christ.Learn more
Survey the themes and purpose of the Old Testament with renowned Old Testament scholar Bruce Waltke. You’ll get a clearer understanding of how the different books of the Old Testament fit together to tell the grand story of God’s plan of salvation. The course covers creation, the fall, God’s covenants with his people, and God’s great acts of redemption and deliverance in the Old Testament. Dr. Waltke explores how the different genres of literature in the Old Testament explain and expand on the story of the Old Testament and how this story is relevant to you. As he says in the course: “Through biblical theology, I hope you will know God personally—not only learn about him but . . . come to know him personally. And also through this course, you will know who you are and where you fit into the scheme of things—that you are a part of a great story of salvation history. You are part of the establishment of God’s kingdom on earth.”Learn more
Mobile Ed: BI205 Old Testament Exegesis: Understanding and Applying the Old Testament (15 hour course)
Embark on a journey of Old Testament Hebrew exegesis with Jason DeRouchie. The books of the Old Testament were the only Scriptures Jesus had. It was books like Genesis, Deuteronomy, Isaiah, and Psalms that shaped Jesus’ upbringing and that guided his life in ministry as the Jewish Messiah. It was these Scriptures that Jesus identified as God’s Word and he considered to be authoritative; it was these Scriptures he believed called people to know and believe in God and guarded them against doctrinal error and hell. This course will give you the tools you need to access meaning in the Old Testament, then apply it to your life. It will help you to grow in reading God’s living Word for depth and not just distance.Learn more
Mobile Ed: BI190 The Use of the Old Testament in the New Testament: Methodology and Practice (5 hour course)
"In this course, Dr. Jeannine Brown shows how we can better understand what the New Testament writers were communicating by looking at how they referenced the Old Testament. Dr. Brown begins by explaining why New Testament writers referenced the Old Testament and the four ways in which they did so. She then walks through references in Matthew, John, Philippians, and 1 Peter. See how Jesus is portrayed as the new Adam in John’s Gospel. Discover connections between Jesus’ teaching and the stories of Cain and Abel, Noah, Sodom, and others. Learn new methods for interpreting Scripture, and come away with a fuller picture of how Jesus fulfills the hopes of the Old Testament and completes the story God began with Israel."Learn more